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Punggung Ruby

Punggung Ruby


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Ruby Ridge adalah lokasi pertikaian selama 11 hari di daerah terpencil Boundary County, Idaho, dimulai pada 21 Agustus 1992. Para perwira dan agen federal berhadapan dengan Randy Weaver, istri dan lima anaknya, serta temannya Kevin Harris. Insiden Ruby Ridge adalah puncak dari tahun penyelidikan Weaver oleh otoritas lokal, FBI, ATF dan Secret Service. Itu berakhir dengan penembakan kematian seorang marshal AS, istri Weaver Vicki dan putra remaja mereka Samuel (Sammy).

Randy Weaver

Randy Weaver adalah seorang drop-out perguruan tinggi dan mantan Baret Hijau. Dia dan istrinya Vicki adalah fundamentalis agama yang tidak mempercayai pemerintah dan percaya bahwa akhir dunia sudah dekat. Mereka mulai menimbun senjata dan membuat rencana untuk pindah ke daerah terpencil dan hidup di luar jaringan.

Pada tahun 1984, Randy, Vicki, dan anak-anak mereka pindah ke kabin yang mereka bangun sendiri menghadap ke Ruby Creek di Idaho. Karena pilihan, mereka tidak memiliki listrik atau air yang mengalir.

Penenun dan Bangsa Arya

Setelah menerima informasi bahwa Weaver telah mengancam Presiden Ronald Reagan dan pejabat pemerintah lainnya, FBI dan Secret Service membuka penyelidikan. Tidak ada tuduhan yang diajukan, tetapi penyelidik mendokumentasikan bahwa Weaver memiliki hubungan dengan Bangsa Arya. Weaver membantah klaim tersebut.

Pada tahun 1989, agen ATF yang menyamar mengklaim Weaver menjual senapan gergaji ilegal dan menawarkannya kesempatan untuk menjadi informan di Bangsa Arya. Ketika Weaver menolak, dia didakwa membuat dan menyimpan senjata ilegal.

Setelah dibebaskan dengan jaminan, persidangannya ditetapkan untuk Februari 1991, tetapi petugas masa percobaannya mengatakan kepadanya bahwa itu tidak sampai 20 Maret.

Weaver melewatkan persidangan Februari dan surat perintah dikeluarkan untuk penangkapannya. Sidang 20 Maret datang dan pergi tanpa kehadiran dari Weaver, dan juri agung mendakwanya karena gagal muncul di persidangan. Upaya untuk bernegosiasi dengan Weaver selama tahun depan melalui surat gagal dan dia tetap buron.

Marshals Merencanakan Penangkapan Weaver

US Marshal Service bertanggung jawab untuk membawa Weaver yang sekarang buron. Mengingat persenjataan senjata Weaver dan sikap anti-pemerintah, mereka memutuskan dia tidak akan menyerah secara damai. Mereka merencanakan take-down rahasia untuk mengumpulkan intelijen, survei medan dan keluarga Weaver dan, mudah-mudahan, akhirnya menangkap Weaver.

Pengawasan dimulai, dan keluarga Weaver menjadi semakin terisolasi. Vicki Weaver melahirkan seorang bayi perempuan di rumah dan merawat keluarganya sebaik mungkin dalam keadaan sulit.

Tim pengintai mencatat bahwa Weaver hampir selalu bersenjata dan memutuskan untuk menetap dalam jangka panjang. Mereka berencana untuk menyusup ke unit keluarga yang ketat dengan bantuan seorang pria dan wanita yang menyamar sebagai tetangga terbaru Weaver, tetapi para deputi tidak pernah mendapat kesempatan.

Kematian di Ruby Ridge

Wakil Marsekal Dave Hunt dan Wakil Marsekal Art Roderick mengetahui medan kasar di sekitar properti Weaver dengan baik dan memimpin tim penyamaran yang termasuk Marshal William (Billy) Degan.

Pada pagi hari tanggal 21 Agustus 1992, saat tim bersiap untuk mengumpulkan informasi intelijen untuk hari itu, anjing-anjing Weaver menyadari kehadiran mereka. Anjing-anjing, Sammy Weaver, Randy Weaver, dan Kevin Harris mengejar saat tim pengintai berhamburan.

Baku tembak pun terjadi, meninggalkan Sammy Weaver yang berusia 14 tahun, Marshal Degan dan salah satu anjing Weaver mati. Siapa yang menembak lebih dulu dan siapa yang menembak siapa yang kemudian akan menjadi perdebatan hangat oleh semua pihak yang masih hidup, di pengadilan dan di media.

Tapi pembantaian itu belum berakhir.

Pengepungan Ruby Ridge

Saat keluarga Weaver bersembunyi di kabin mereka, berduka atas Sammy dan merencanakan langkah mereka selanjutnya, Deputi Hunt meminta bantuan, putus asa untuk mengeluarkan tubuh Marshal Degan dari gunung dan mengakhiri kebuntuan.

Pada tanggal 22 Agustus, FBI, di bawah kesan mereka memasuki baku tembak aktif tanpa alasan melawan US Marshals, tiba di Ruby Ridge. Ketika ratusan petugas penegak hukum dan agen federal menyerbu ke daerah itu dengan perintah yang tidak biasa untuk menembak setiap orang dewasa bersenjata yang terlihat, penembak jitu FBI mengatur perimeter berharap untuk memaksa Weaver untuk bernegosiasi.

Namun, Weaver tidak memilikinya, dan mengabaikan semua upaya negosiasi, termasuk permohonan dari saudara perempuannya. Setelah menuju ke gudang terdekat tempat mereka membawa tubuh Sammy sebelumnya, Weaver dan Harris bersama dengan putri Weaver yang berusia 16 tahun, Sara yang mengikuti di belakang, ditembak oleh penembak jitu FBI Lon Horiuchi yang mengira orang-orang itu akan menembaki sebuah helikopter. .

Weaver dipukul dan dia, Sara dan Harris kembali ke rumah yang aman.

Saat para pria mendekati rumah, Vicki berdiri di belakang pintu depan sambil menggendong bayi perempuannya. Horiuchi menembak lagi, mengenai wajah Vicki dan membunuhnya. Peluru itu juga melukai Harris dengan serius. Horiuchi kemudian mengklaim dia tidak tahu Vicki ada di ambang pintu dan mengincar Harris.

Kekacauan terjadi saat Harris, Weaver dan keluarganya yang masih hidup berlindung di kabin. Dengan baik Harris dan Weaver terluka dan Vicki dan Sammy tewas, situasinya suram—tampaknya mengkonfirmasi kecurigaan tergelap Weaver tentang pemerintah federal dan kiamat yang akan segera terjadi.

Namun Weaver tidak menyerah. Di luar kabin, ratusan pengunjuk rasa datang untuk menentang tindakan pemerintah dan semakin gelisah ketika mereka mengetahui kematian Sammy dan Vicki.

Pengepungan Berakhir

Setelah didekati oleh FBI untuk merekam pesan kepada Weaver yang mendorongnya untuk menyerah, tentara Pasukan Khusus Bo Gritz tiba di tempat kejadian, yakin dia bisa mengakhiri kebuntuan yang gagal dengan damai.

Pada 30 Agustus, Gritz meyakinkan Weaver untuk menyerahkan Harris yang terluka parah dan mengizinkan tubuh Vicki dikeluarkan dari kabin. Tapi Weaver dan keluarganya yang masih hidup, termasuk bayi perempuannya, tetap berada di dalam.

Dengan waktu yang hampir habis sebelum agen federal mengakhiri pengepungan untuk selamanya, Gritz pergi ke kabin lagi pada pagi hari tanggal 31 Agustus. Meskipun Weaver telah bersumpah untuk mati sebelum menyerahkan diri, Gritz meyakinkannya sebaliknya dan mengantar Weaver dan putrinya yang ketakutan keluar. dari kabin.

Weaver segera ditangkap dan putrinya diserahkan kepada kerabatnya. Pengepungan panjang Ruby Ridge akhirnya berakhir.

Ruby Ridge Aftermath

Meskipun didakwa dengan pembunuhan, konspirasi dan kejahatan lainnya, Weaver hanya dihukum karena gagal muncul untuk diadili atas tuduhan senjata aslinya. Harris dibebaskan dari semua tuduhan.

Laporan gugus tugas Departemen Kehakiman menemukan banyak kesalahan dengan cara agen federal menangani situasi Ruby Ridge, seperti:

  • Perubahan aturan yang memungkinkan penembak jitu menembak orang dewasa bersenjata yang terlihat tanpa peringatan untuk menyerah adalah inkonstitusional.
  • Horiuchi tidak dibenarkan dalam melepaskan tembakan yang membunuh Vicki Weaver karena Weaver dan Harris mundur ketika dia menembak.
  • Horiuchi menempatkan Vicki Weaver dan anak-anaknya dalam bahaya dengan menargetkan pintu kabin tanpa mengetahui siapa yang berada di belakangnya.

Setidaknya satu agen FBI, E. Michael Kahoe, berpartisipasi dalam upaya menutup-nutupi Ruby Ridge. Dia mengaku bersalah karena menghalangi keadilan dan dijatuhi hukuman 18 bulan penjara dan denda $ 4.000 setelah mengakui menghancurkan laporan yang mengutuk tanggapan FBI selama kebuntuan.

Lon Horiuchi

Pada tahun 1997, penembak jitu FBI Lon Horiuchi didakwa melakukan pembunuhan karena membunuh Vicki Weaver. Seorang hakim menolak kasus tersebut, bagaimanapun, mengklaim agen federal tidak dapat dikenakan biaya untuk tindakan yang diambil dalam menjalankan tugas. Pada tahun 2001, putusan itu dibatalkan, tetapi tidak ada tuntutan pidana lebih lanjut yang diajukan terhadap Horiuchi.

Pemerintah AS membayar harga finansial yang tinggi untuk perannya di Ruby Ridge. Pada tahun 1995, Randy Weaver dan ketiga putrinya dianugerahi $3,1 juta atas kehilangan tragis Sammy dan Vicki.

Pada tahun 2000, Harris dianugerahi $380.000 oleh pemerintah sebagai imbalan atas gugatannya senilai $10 juta terhadap mereka—pemerintah tidak pernah mengakui kesalahan apa pun dalam kasus Harris.

Sumber

F.B.I. Agen Dapat Didakwa dalam Pengepungan Idaho, Aturan Pengadilan. The New York Times.
Mantan Pejabat FBI Dihukum dalam Ruby Ridge Probe. CNN.
Ruby Ridge, Bagian Satu: Kecurigaan. Pengalaman Amerika PBS.
Pengalaman Amerika PBS.
Ruby Ridge, Bagian Dua: Konfirmasi. Pengalaman Amerika PBS.
A.S. Menyelesaikan Gugatan Perdata Akhir yang Berasal dari Ruby Ridge Siege. The New York Times.


Ruby Ridge mengukir ceruk dalam sejarah

Pada tahun 1992, seorang separatis kulit putih yang dicari oleh agen federal mundur bersama keluarganya ke puncak gunung terpencil di Idaho. Tiga orang tewas dalam kebuntuan berikutnya, dan peristiwa itu menjadi momen yang menentukan dalam kebangkitan sayap kanan radikal. Lihat garis waktu acara

Seorang bidan untuk gerakan milisi
Randy Weaver Sejarawan dan penulis Michael Barkun, seorang profesor emeritus di Universitas Syracuse, mengatakan Ruby Ridge adalah "penting utama" bagi ekstremis sayap kanan. "Itu menegaskan keyakinan bahwa mereka berperang dengan pemerintah federal," katanya. “Dalam pikiran mereka, pertempuran lain akan mengikuti, seperti Waco, dan dengan mereka timbul keasyikan dengan gerakan martir – sekali lagi, sebuah tema di mana Ruby Ridge adalah salah satu titik asalnya,” kata Barkun. Mark Pitcavage, direktur penelitian investigasi untuk Liga Anti-Pencemaran Nama Baik, mengatakan Ruby Ridge harus dipertimbangkan di samping kebuntuan Cabang Davidian. “Seandainya hanya satu dari peristiwa itu terjadi, masa depan mungkin akan berbeda,” kata Pitcavage. “Datang seperti yang mereka lakukan sebagai pukulan satu-dua, mereka memiliki konsekuensi luar biasa yang masih kita rasakan sampai sekarang.” "Pukulan satu-dua" tidak hanya membantu menggembleng gerakan supremasi kulit putih, tetapi juga membentuk kembali apa yang disebut "gerakan patriot," sebuah kelompok luas yang terdiri dari berbagai ekstremis anti-pemerintah, kata Pitcavage, yang meraih gelar doktor dalam sejarah Amerika dari The Universitas Negeri Ohio. Ruby Ridge dan Waco juga menjadi “bidan” untuk gerakan milisi tahun 1990-an, katanya. “Waco, dalam arti tertentu, memberi orang kemampuan untuk menggunakan Ruby Ridge secara simbolis tanpa takut dikaitkan dengan supremasi kulit putih,” kata Pitcavage. “Dengan demikian, Ruby Ridge dan Waco bersama-sama akhirnya tidak hanya memobilisasi supremasi kulit putih tetapi juga bagian ekstrem kanan yang jauh lebih besar.” Heidi Beirich, direktur Proyek Intelijen di Pusat Hukum Kemiskinan Selatan, mengatakan Ruby Ridge "adalah percikan yang memicu gerakan sosial yang ada hingga hari ini dan telah melihat jumlahnya meledak sejak pemilihan Presiden (Barack) Obama." Penembakan istri dan putra Randy Weaver oleh agen federal "menimbulkan kecurigaan serius" terhadap lembaga pemerintah dan penegak hukum di jajaran aktivis anti-pemerintah, "menciptakan irisan yang semakin melebar," kata Beirich.
'Jejak serius ... kesalahan'
Lebih hati-hati diambil dengan fanatik
Pengepungan melambangkan 'negara polisi yang dimiliterisasi'

Jurnalisme lokal sangat penting.

Berikan langsung ke seri forum komunitas The Spokesman-Review's Northwest Passages -- yang membantu mengimbangi biaya beberapa posisi reporter dan editor di surat kabar -- dengan menggunakan opsi mudah di bawah ini. Hadiah yang diproses dalam sistem ini tidak dapat dikurangkan dari pajak, tetapi sebagian besar digunakan untuk membantu memenuhi persyaratan keuangan lokal yang diperlukan untuk menerima dana hibah pendamping nasional.


Ceruk Ukiran Ruby Ridge dalam Sejarah

Catatan Editor: Artikel ini pertama kali diterbitkan pada 19 Agustus di Juru Bicara-Ulasan, berbasis di Spokane, Wash. Pengepungan 11 hari di Ruby Ridge dimulai 20 tahun yang lalu hari ini, pada 21 Agustus 1992. Penulis posting ini meliput Bangsa Arya dan kelompok ekstremis lainnya selama 37 tahun karirnya sebagai reporter dengan Juru Bicara-Review.

Siapa yang mengira 20 tahun yang lalu minggu ini bahwa dua kata itu akan menjadi ikon, titik referensi dalam budaya Amerika?

Lebih dari pengepungan mematikan di Idaho Utara yang merenggut nyawa seorang ibu, putranya dan seorang marshal federal, kebuntuan di Ruby Ridge menjadi titik kumpul bagi gerakan ekstremis dan menjadikan Randy Weaver, supremasi kulit putih di pusat acara. , pahlawan bagi kelompok tersebut. Itu juga mengubah cara penegakan hukum federal menangani kebuntuan dengan buronan.

Sejarawan dan pakar ekstremisme menawarkan penilaian yang berbeda-beda tentang pengepungan 11 hari yang dinamai Ruby Ridge setelah puncak gunung di dekat Naples, Idaho, tidak jauh dari kabin buatan tangan Weaver dan keluarganya.

Butuh bertahun-tahun, termasuk sidang kongres pada tahun 1995, untuk memilah urutan peristiwa, dan masih ada poin ketidaksepakatan.

Tetapi hampir semua orang - dari aktivis antipemerintah dan rasis hingga akademisi dan sejarawan - setuju bahwa Ruby Ridge adalah masalah besar, dengan dampak yang bertahan lama.

Percikan kemarahan antipemerintah yang dipicu Ruby Ridge pada Agustus 1992 tumbuh jauh lebih besar satu tahun kemudian ketika agen federal terlibat dalam pengepungan lain di Waco, Texas. Peristiwa itu menyebabkan empat agen federal dan 83 anggota sekte keagamaan Cabang Davidian tewas.

Peristiwa-peristiwa itu, para ahli umumnya setuju, memicu gerakan anti-pemerintah yang bertahan hingga hari ini, meletus dalam kekerasan sesekali dan ancaman mematikan terhadap penegakan hukum.

Peristiwa di Idaho Utara pada Agustus 1992 menjadi "tembakan pembuka dalam apa yang akan segera menjadi perang terbuka antara sayap kanan radikal Amerika dan pemerintahnya," kata Mark Potok, seorang rekan senior di Pusat Hukum Kemiskinan Selatan dan editor dari "Intelligence Report," sebuah majalah yang melacak ekstremisme.

Ruby Ridge adalah "titik nyala" dalam sejarah AS, kata Potok, di mana "kemarahan yang membara pada pemerintah federal akhirnya tersulut."

Sejarawan dan penulis Michael Barkun, seorang profesor emeritus di Universitas Syracuse, mengatakan Ruby Ridge adalah "penting utama" bagi ekstremis sayap kanan. "Itu menegaskan keyakinan bahwa mereka berperang dengan pemerintah federal," katanya.

"Dalam pikiran mereka, pertempuran lain akan mengikuti, seperti Waco, dan dengan mereka timbul keasyikan dengan gerakan martir - sekali lagi, tema yang Ruby Ridge adalah salah satu titik asal," kata Barkun.

Mark Pitcavage, direktur penelitian investigasi untuk Liga Anti-Pencemaran Nama Baik, mengatakan Ruby Ridge harus dipertimbangkan di samping kebuntuan Cabang Davidian.

"Seandainya hanya satu dari peristiwa itu terjadi, masa depan mungkin berbeda. Datang seperti yang mereka lakukan sebagai pukulan satu-dua, mereka memiliki konsekuensi luar biasa yang masih kita rasakan hari ini."

"Pukulan satu-dua" tidak hanya membantu menggembleng gerakan supremasi kulit putih, tetapi juga membentuk kembali apa yang disebut "gerakan patriot," sebuah kelompok luas yang terdiri dari berbagai ekstremis antipemerintah, kata Pitcavage, yang meraih gelar doktor dalam sejarah Amerika dari Negara Bagian Ohio.

Ruby Ridge dan Waco bersama-sama juga menjadi "bidan" untuk gerakan milisi tahun 1990-an, katanya.

"Waco, dalam arti tertentu, memberi orang kemampuan untuk menggunakan Ruby Ridge secara simbolis tanpa takut dikaitkan dengan supremasi kulit putih,'' kata Pitcavage. paling kanan."

Heidi Beirich, direktur Proyek Intelijen di Pusat Hukum Kemiskinan Selatan, mengatakan Ruby Ridge "adalah percikan yang memicu gerakan sosial yang ada hingga hari ini dan telah melihat jumlahnya meledak sejak pemilihan Presiden Obama.''

Penembakan istri dan anak Randy Weaver oleh agen federal "menimbulkan kecurigaan serius" terhadap lembaga pemerintah dan penegak hukum di jajaran aktivis antipemerintah, "menciptakan irisan yang semakin melebar," kata Beirich.

Di luar dampak budaya dan politik mereka, Ruby Ridge dan Waco mengajarkan penegakan hukum federal yang memalukan - beberapa akan mengatakan pelajaran yang menyakitkan.

Louis J. Freeh, yang menggantikan direktur FBI yang dipecat William Sessions setelah pengepungan Waco, mengatakan kepada Kongres pada tahun 1995 bahwa Ruby Ridge adalah "serangkaian operasi penegakan hukum yang sangat cacat dengan konsekuensi yang tragis."

"Ada jejak kesalahan operasional yang serius dari pegunungan Idaho utara ke markas besar FBI dan kembali ke ruang sidang federal di Idaho," kata Freeh dalam kesaksian di kongres.

Freeh mengakhiri "aturan keterlibatan" yang memungkinkan agen FBI menembak di tempat - aturan yang menurutnya tidak konsisten dengan kebijakan kekuatan mematikan FBI. (Kebijakan itu mengizinkan penggunaan kekuatan mematikan hanya dalam menghadapi kematian yang akan segera terjadi atau cedera fisik serius pada petugas atau orang lain).

Direktur FBI juga mengubah "struktur respon krisis" biro dan mendisiplinkan 12 karyawan FBI setelah menyimpulkan tidak ada yang melakukan kejahatan atau kesalahan yang disengaja.

"Ruby Ridge telah menjadi identik dengan tragedi, mengingat kematian seorang deputi marshal AS, seorang anak laki-laki, dan ibu dari seorang anak laki-laki di sana," kata direktur FBI. "Itu juga menjadi sinonim dengan penerapan berlebihan dari penegakan hukum federal. Kedua kesimpulan itu tampaknya dibenarkan,'' katanya.

Wayne Manis, agen FBI yang menahan Weaver setelah dia menyerah, mengakhiri kebuntuan tahun 1992, mengatakan banyak detail dan fakta seputar Ruby Ridge telah terdistorsi selama bertahun-tahun agar sesuai dengan berbagai agenda antipemerintah dan rasis.

Weaver awalnya ditangkap tanpa insiden oleh agen ATF dan dibebaskan setelah berjanji kepada hakim federal bahwa dia akan secara sukarela muncul di sidang pengadilan di masa depan. Ketika dia tidak melakukannya, hakim lain mengeluarkan surat perintah untuk Weaver, menugaskan wakil marshal AS untuk menangkapnya kembali. Ketika salah satu wakil marshal itu ditembak mati, kasus itu diserahkan ke FBI.

Jika Weaver turun dari gunung dan muncul di pengadilan, seperti yang dia janjikan, seluruh warisan Ruby Ridge tidak akan pernah lahir, kata Manis.

FBI, meski mengakui beberapa kesalahan langkah, "masih menerima banyak kritik yang menurut saya tidak adil," kata Manis, yang sekarang sudah pensiun dan tinggal di Idaho Utara.

Kebuntuan selanjutnya dengan ekstremis antipemerintah - termasuk Montana Freeman pada tahun 1996 - akan membuat agen FBI dan Biro Alkohol, Tembakau, Senjata Api dan Bahan Peledak lebih sabar.

"Peristiwa Ruby Ridge, meskipun tidak sepenuhnya kesalahan pemerintah, tidak menempatkan penegakan hukum dengan baik,'' kata Potok, dari Pusat Hukum Kemiskinan Selatan.

"Meskipun tragedi itu mengajarkan beberapa pelajaran penting, tidak sampai resolusi berdarah dari kebuntuan tahun 1996 dengan Montana Freemen bahwa penegak hukum Amerika tampaknya sepenuhnya menyerap gagasan bahwa seringkali lebih baik untuk melanjutkan dengan bijaksana dan hati-hati daripada kekuatan fisik yang berlebihan. ," dia berkata.

Rekannya, Beirich, setuju, mengatakan lembaga penegak hukum telah "belajar untuk berhati-hati dengan fanatik." Dia mengutip kebuntuan berkelanjutan berusia 12 tahun di Texas dengan John Joe Gray.

Bagian dari legiun yang berkembang dari apa yang disebut "warga negara yang berdaulat," Gray - seperti yang dilakukan Weaver pada tahun 1992 - menolak untuk mengakui otoritas pemerintah mana pun dan terus menantang polisi untuk datang dan menangkapnya.

Gray dan keluarganya bertahan hidup tanpa listrik dan pipa ledeng modern di pertanian seluas 50 hektar dekat Trinidad, Texas, sekitar 70 mil tenggara Dallas. Rekan bersenjata membantu menjaga Gray di propertinya di mana sebuah taman besar, ikan sungai, dan kawanan kambing mendukung keluarganya.

Tidak seperti Weaver, yang surat perintah penangkapannya diperintahkan oleh hakim federal, Gray menghadapi tuntutan pidana negara bagian dan penangkapannya merupakan masalah bagi sheriff terpilih setempat. Gray didakwa menyerang seorang polisi negara bagian Texas pada Malam Natal 1999 dan kemudian melompat dengan jaminan, menolak untuk muncul di pengadilan, mengklaim bahwa dia adalah warga negara yang berdaulat yang tidak dapat dikontrol oleh pemerintah. Empat sheriff terpilih kemudian, pihak berwenang masih menunggunya.

Pada kebuntuan lain pada tahun 2007 di New Hampshire, Weaver - dipandang sebagai pahlawan rakyat di jajaran anti-pemerintah dan ekstremis - muncul untuk menyuarakan dukungannya bagi pemrotes pajak yang dihukum Ed dan Elaine Brown. Pasangan itu, yang kemudian ditangkap oleh otoritas federal dan sekarang di penjara, telah menyuarakan pandangan anti-Semit dan pro-milisi.

Hari-hari ini, Weaver tidak melakukan wawancara yang mencerminkan Ruby Ridge, menurut putrinya, Sara Weaver-Balter, yang sekarang tinggal di Kalispell, Mont. Dalam salinan bukunya yang ditandatangani, "The Federal Siege at Ruby Ridge," dijual bekas di Amazon seharga 99 sen, Weaver menulis, "Freedom at any cost!" Dia masih menjual buku itu di pameran senjata dan pameran bertahan hidup.

Putri Weaver juga menolak berkomentar tentang dampak jangka panjang Ruby Ridge, dengan mengatakan bahwa dia hanya ingin berbicara tentang pengampunan, pertobatannya menjadi Kristen, dan buku yang dia jual.

Sejak Ruby Ridge, lembaga penegak hukum federal sekarang bekerja lebih erat, sebagian besar dalam satuan tugas terorisme gabungan regional. Bagi mereka, para ekstremis - sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh pembunuhan massal baru-baru ini di Wisconsin - masih merupakan keprihatinan nyata. Apa yang disebut warga negara berdaulat - seperti keluarga Brown - yang menganggap pemerintah tidak memiliki kendali atas mereka sekarang dianggap sebagai ancaman terorisme domestik No. 1 oleh FBI.

Tanggapan yang ditingkatkan terhadap ancaman yang ditimbulkan oleh para ekstremis terjadi setelah pengeboman gedung federal Kota Oklahoma 1995 yang menewaskan 168 orang. Hal itu dilakukan oleh Timothy McVeigh yang mengatakan dirinya termotivasi oleh acara di Ruby Ridge dan Waco.

"Apa yang dilakukan pemerintah AS di Waco dan Ruby Ridge adalah kotor, dan saya membalas mereka dengan kotor di Oklahoma City," kata McVeigh seperti dikutip dalam buku, "American Terrorist."

Tanggapan pemerintah terhadap tindakan terorisme domestik yang mematikan seperti itu telah menyebabkan apa yang oleh sebagian orang digambarkan sebagai "militerisasi" penegakan hukum di semua tingkatan, termasuk badan-badan federal.

"Bagi para ekstremis Amerika, pengepungan di Ruby Ridge melambangkan 'negara polisi yang dimiliterisasi,'" kata Daryl Johnson, mantan analis terorisme domestik untuk ATF dan Departemen Keamanan Dalam Negeri.

Johnson adalah penulis buku yang akan segera dirilis, "Kebangkitan Sayap Kanan," yang membahas bagaimana, menurut pendapatnya, ancaman ekstremis domestik tidak ditanggapi dengan cukup serius di tingkat tertinggi dalam pemerintahan AS. Dia memiliki perusahaan konsultan swasta, DT Analytics, yang memantau aktivitas ekstremis domestik dan memberikan pelatihan khusus untuk penegakan hukum.

Pemerintah AS, melalui Departemen Keamanan Dalam Negeri khususnya, Johnson mengatakan, "telah secara tidak sengaja memupuk, dan bahkan memperkuat, konspirasi Orwellian mengenai pemerintah federal yang terlalu bersemangat dan menindas dan keinginannya untuk membunuh untuk memastikan kepatuhan warga negara."

"Dalam pikiran para ekstremis modern, (Keamanan Dalam Negeri) telah meningkatkan kemampuan mematikan dari banyak pasukan polisi kota kecil yang kekurangan dana melalui program hibahnya," kata Johnson.

Dengan menggunakan hibah federal, lembaga penegak hukum negara bagian dan lokal dapat membeli peralatan dan pelatihan mahal yang "umumnya terkait dengan militer," katanya.

“Para ekstremis memandang pembangunan keamanan seperti itu sebagai kelanjutan dari warisan Ruby Ridge,” kata Johnson.

Warisan itu adalah pukulan drum yang berkelanjutan bagi para ekstremis dan supremasi kulit putih yang merekrut dengan pesan "pemerintah besar versus orang kecil" dan "pemerintah menjebak saya," kata Johnson.

Ide-ide ekstremis ini berlanjut sebagai pesan dan bahkan tema perekrutan di antara berbagai kelompok radikal di Amerika Serikat, katanya.

Dalam beberapa minggu terakhir, berbagai situs Web rasis dan supremasi kulit putih telah menyebutkan ulang tahun ke-20, banyak yang menyebut Randy Weaver sebagai pahlawan.

"Sementara banyak dari kita kehilangan orang yang dicintai dalam perang ini, Tuan Weaver tercatat dalam sejarah sebagai salah satu yang terbaik," kata satu komentar yang diposting di Stormfront, yang dianggap sebagai situs kebencian terbesar di Internet.

"Saya kenal seorang pria kulit putih yang sangat menghormati apa yang dilakukan keluarga di Ruby Ridge," kata komentator itu.


Ruby Ridge Adalah Sejarah, Tetapi Pola Pikir Yang Menyebabkan Ruby Ridge Berkembang

Sudah 20 tahun sejak bentrokan di Ruby Ridge, Idaho, serangan yang menyebabkan kematian tiga manusia dan seekor anjing dengan kejam. Randy dan Vicki Weaver, pasangan dari Midwestern, telah pindah ke pegunungan di Pacific Northwest, di mana mereka berencana untuk hidup secukup mungkin. Kemudian Biro Alkohol, Tembakau, dan Senjata Api menjebak Randy dalam pelanggaran senjata ringan dan menawarkan kesepakatan: Tuduhan itu akan dibatalkan jika dia menjadi informan di lingkaran separatis kulit putih. Sebaliknya Weaver melewatkan (atau hanya melewatkan) persidangannya (*) dan memindahkan keluarganya ke sebuah pondok di hutan belantara.

Ketika agen federal tiba di tempat kejadian, mereka menembak anjing keluarga itu. Putra Weavers, Sam, tidak menyadari apa yang sedang terjadi, melepaskan tembakan sebagai tanggapan dan kemudian melarikan diri, pada saat itu seorang agen menembaknya dari belakang. Kevin Harris, seorang teman yang berkunjung, menembaki polisi yang menyerang dan membunuh satu orang. Penembak jitu FBI terus melukai Randy dan Harris, dan salah satu penembak jitu membunuh Vicki, menembakkan peluru ke kepalanya saat dia menggendong putrinya yang berusia 10 bulan.

Kebuntuan 11 hari pun terjadi. Setelah Weaver menyerah, dia dan Harris ditemukan tidak bersalah atas pembunuhan. Sebuah laporan internal kemudian menyimpulkan bahwa FBI telah melanggar hak konstitusional Weaver. Beberapa tokoh dalam badan tersebut menduga bahwa mereka telah melakukan kesalahan jauh sebelum itu, meskipun beberapa hari setelah pengepungan, Danny Coulson dari FBI menulis ini dalam sebuah memo:

Sesuatu untuk Dipertimbangkan
1. Serangan terhadap Weaver adalah Bull Shit.
2. Tidak ada yang melihat Weaver melakukan pemotretan.
3. Vicki tidak memiliki tuduhan apapun terhadapnya.
4. Pertahanan penenun. Dia berlari menuruni bukit untuk melihat anjing apa yang menggonggong. Beberapa pria di camys [kamuflase] menembak anjingnya. Mulai menembaki dia. Membunuh anaknya. Harris melakukan penembakan [agen FBI]. Dia [Randy Weaver] berada dalam posisi hukum yang cukup kuat.

Tidak sulit menemukan contoh kelompok marjinal yang paranoianya terhadap pemerintah mendorong mereka melakukan kekerasan. Kisah The Weavers menunjukkan bagaimana paranoia pemerintah terhadap kelompok marjinal dapat mendorong dia untuk kekerasan juga. FBI melihat sebuah keluarga dengan pandangan pinggiran dan menganggap ancaman, dan sebagai hasilnya seorang wanita, anak laki-laki, anjing, dan salah satu agen pemerintah sendiri tewas. Itu bukan yang terakhir kalinya hal seperti itu terjadi. Setahun kemudian di Waco, paranoia Branch Davidians tidak akan menandingi paranoia musuh Davidians.

Saya berharap saya dapat melaporkan bahwa ketakutan pihak berwenang telah memudar dalam beberapa dekade sejak Ruby Ridge dan Waco. Sebaliknya itu telah dilembagakan di pusat-pusat fusi yang mengotori negara, di mana semua orang mulai dari penggemar Ron Paul hingga aktivis anti-fracking telah dinodai sebagai teroris potensial. Sementara itu, pasukan polisi negara itu semakin termiliterisasi. Sungguh kombinasi yang menyedihkan dan menakutkan.

(* Saya awalnya menulis bahwa dia hanya melewatkan persidangan, tetapi seorang komentator mengingatkan saya bahwa Weaver telah dikirim pada tanggal yang salah. Yang mengatakan, buku Alan Bock tentang kebuntuan — yang sama sekali tidak simpatik kepada pemerintah — menunjukkan bahwa ada peluang bagus Weaver tidak akan muncul dengan cara apa pun: "Randy kemudian memberi tahu teman-temannya bahwa dia yakin dia akan digiring, bahwa saksi pemerintah akan berbohong di bawah sumpah, dan bahwa dia akan dihukum entah bersalah atau tidak." Tetapi bahkan jika Bock benar, fakta bahwa Weaver tidak diberitahu hari yang tepat untuk tanggal pengadilan yang dia lewatkan hanya menggarisbawahi betapa berlebihannya reaksi pemerintah.)


Pengepungan di Ruby Ridge sering dianggap sebagai tanggal penting dalam sejarah Amerika. Baku tembak antara Randy Weaver dan keluarganya serta agen federal pada 21 Agustus 1992, adalah salah satu yang memulai Gerakan Milisi Konstitusional dan meninggalkan Amerika dengan ketidakpercayaan yang mendalam terhadap kepemimpinannya – khususnya Presiden George H.W. Bush dan akhirnya Presiden Bill Clinton dan Jaksa Agung Janet Reno.

Versi singkatnya adalah ini: Randy Weaver dan istrinya Vicki pindah dengan empat anak mereka ke Idaho Panhandle, dekat perbatasan Kanada, untuk melarikan diri dari apa yang mereka pikir adalah dunia yang semakin korup. The Weavers memegang keyakinan separatis rasial tetapi tidak terlibat dalam aktivitas kekerasan atau retorika. Mereka adalah orang-orang Kristen yang damai yang hanya ingin dibiarkan sendiri.

Khusus untuk keyakinannya, Randy Weaver menjadi sasaran Biro Alkohol, Tembakau, dan Senjata Api (ATF) dalam operasi "sengat" yang dirancang untuk mendapatkan kerja samanya sebagai pengadu. Ketika dia menolak menjadi informan federal, dia didakwa menjual senjata api secara ilegal. Karena miskomunikasi tentang tanggal pengadilannya, Layanan Marshal dibawa, yang mengepung rumahnya dan menembak dan membunuh istri dan putranya yang berusia 14 tahun.

Randy Weaver, dalam banyak hal, adalah kisah khas Amerika. Dia dibesarkan di komunitas pertanian Iowa. Dia mendapat nilai bagus di sekolah menengah dan bermain sepak bola. Keluarganya menghadiri gereja secara teratur. Dia keluar dari community college dan bergabung dengan Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1970. Setelah tiga tahun bertugas, dia diberhentikan dengan hormat.

Satu bulan kemudian dia menikah dengan Victoria Jordison. Dia kemudian mendaftar di University of Northern Iowa, mempelajari peradilan pidana dengan tujuan menjadi Agen FBI. Namun, dia drop out karena biaya kuliahnya terlalu mahal. Dia akhirnya bekerja di pabrik John Deere sementara istrinya bekerja sebagai sekretaris sebelum menjadi ibu rumah tangga.

Kedua Penenun semakin menjadi apokaliptik dalam pandangan mereka tentang dunia. Ini, dikombinasikan dengan peningkatan penekanan pada Kekristenan yang berbasis Perjanjian Lama, membuat mereka mencari kehidupan yang jauh dari arus utama Amerika, kehidupan yang mengandalkan diri sendiri. Vicki, khususnya, memiliki visi yang kuat tentang keluarganya yang selamat dari kiamat melalui kehidupan yang jauh dari apa yang mereka pandang sebagai dunia yang korup. Untuk itu, Randy membeli sebuah peternakan seluas 20 hektar di Ruby Ridge, ID, dan membangun sebuah kabin di sana.

Tanah itu dibeli seharga $ 5.000 tunai dan perdagangan truk yang mereka gunakan untuk pindah ke sana. Vicki menyekolahkan anak-anak di rumah.

Para Penenun Pindah ke Ruby Ridge

Setelah pindah ke Ruby Ridge, Weaver berkenalan dengan anggota Bangsa Arya di dekat Danau Hayden. Dia bahkan menghadiri beberapa rapat umum. FBI percaya keterlibatannya di gereja jauh lebih dalam daripada yang sebenarnya - mereka mengira dia adalah jemaat tetap Bangsa Arya dan telah menghadiri Kongres Dunia Bangsa Arya.

Baik Randy dan Vicki diwawancarai oleh FBI pada tahun 1985, dengan Randy menyangkal keanggotaan dalam kelompok tersebut, dengan alasan perbedaan teologis yang mendalam. Memang, Penenun (yang memiliki beberapa poin kesepakatan dengan Bangsa Arya, terutama tentang pentingnya Perjanjian Lama) sebagian besar melihat afiliasi mereka dengan Bangsa Arya sebagai outlet sosial. Hidup di luar jaringan, anggota terdekat dari Bangsa Arya bertetangga di Idaho utara yang terpencil.

Kemudian, pada tahun 1986, Randy didekati dalam rapat umum oleh informan ATF yang menyamar Kenneth Faderley, yang menggunakan alter ego biker Gus Magisono dan saat ini sedang memantau dan menyelidiki teman Weaver, Frank Kumnick. Faderley memperkenalkan dirinya sebagai pengedar senjata api ilegal dari New Jersey. Randy kemudian bertemu Faderley di Kongres Dunia 1987. Dia melewatkan Kongres tahun berikutnya untuk mencalonkan diri sebagai sheriff county, pemilihan yang dia kalah.

ATF mengklaim bahwa pada tahun 1989, Faderley membeli dua senapan yang diperpendek secara ilegal dari Randy Weaver. Namun, Weaver membantah hal ini, dengan mengatakan bahwa senapan yang dia jual kepada Faderley sepenuhnya legal dan kemudian dipersingkat. Catatan dari kasus menunjukkan bahwa Faderley membeli senjata dan menunjukkan Weaver di mana untuk mempersingkat mereka, yang merupakan jebakan ilegal. Terlebih lagi, pemerintah memangsa sifat melarat para Penenun, yang tinggal di sebuah pondok kecil di hutan tanpa listrik atau air mengalir.

Tujuan sebenarnya dari penyelidikan itu bukan untuk menangkap Weaver, tetapi menggunakannya untuk menyusup ke sebuah kelompok di Montana yang diorganisir oleh Charles Howarth. In November 1989, Weaver refused to introduce Faderley to Howarth, and Faderley was ordered by his handlers to have no further contact with Weaver.

Randy Weaver Refuses to Turn Snitch

In June 1990, Faderley’s cover was blown. It was then that the ATF reached out to Weaver, stating that they had evidence he was dealing illegal firearms. They told him they would drop all charges if he would agree to become their new informant regarding the investigation of the Aryan Nations groups in the area. Weaver refused.

To coerce him into changing his mind, the Feds staged a stunt where a broken down couple were at the side of the road. Weaver stopped to help them and was handcuffed, thrown face down in the snow and arrested. He had to post his home as bond. Still, he refused to become a federal informant.

The irony of the federal government’s desire to obtain informants within the Aryan Nations is that different branches of federal law enforcement and intelligence gathering occupied five of the six key positions in the organization. This means that the Aryan Nations were effectively a government-run shop, with agents spying on each other to ensure the integrity of an investigation – into an organization almost entirely run by the federal government.

The government had an obsession with the Aryan Nations due to Robert Jay Matthews, who was a member of The Order, a terrorist organization including members of the Aryan Nations. The FBI’s Hostage Rescue Team burned Matthews alive inside his own home.

Due to his ongoing refusal to snitch, Weaver was then arrested in January 1991, on illegal firearms sales charges. These charges stemmed from Weaver’s earlier “sale” of two shortened shotguns to Faderley, the undercover ATF agent – a sale which the feds later admitted constituted illegal entrapment.

Weaver’s court date was set for February 19, 1991, then changed to the next day. Weaver, however, received notice that his court date was not until March 20. He missed his February court appearance and a bench warrant was issued for his arrest. The United States Marshals Service wanted to allow Weaver the chance to appear for what he thought was his court date, however, the United States Attorney’s Office sought a grand jury indictment on March 14th – six days before his notice said he was due in court.

Already skeptical of the Feds after their repeated strongarm tactics, both Randy and Vicki saw this as further evidence that Weaver would not receive a fair trial. They increasingly isolated themselves on their Ruby Ridge farm, vowing to fight rather than surrender peacefully.

During the standoff, a voluntary surrender date was negotiated with the Marshals Service for October 1991, but the United States Attorney’s Office refused the settlement. The Deputy Director of the Special Operations Group of the Marshals Service, using evidence obtained through surveillance, believed that the best course of action was to drop the indictment, issue a new one under seal, and use undercover agents to arrest Weaver, who presumably would have dropped his guard. This recommendation was again rejected.


How What Happened 25 Years Ago At Ruby Ridge Still Matters Today

NPR's Kelly McEvers talks with author Jess Walter about the significance today of the 1992 deadly standoff between right-wing fundamentalists and the federal government at Ruby Ridge in Idaho.

Heavily armed militia members and white nationalists listing the crimes of the federal government on camera. That's what happened in Charlottesville, Va., last weekend. And it's also what happened 25 years ago at Ruby Ridge.

(SUNDBITE DARI PEREKAMAN ARSIP)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: A standoff between a man who is wanted by the FBI and a large number of federal agents. It's entered its sixth day. The man has been holed up in a cabin in a remote section of Idaho.

August 21st, 1992, was the first day of what turned into an 11-day standoff between the federal government and the Weaver family. Randy Weaver was wanted on weapons charges. He and his wife were white separatists who flirted with joining the Aryan Nations. Weaver's wife and son and a federal agent would be dead by the end of the standoff. We wanted to take a look at what happened 25 years ago and to talk about how it still matters today. In a minute, we'll hear from people who use Ruby Ridge as a rallying cry.

But first, writer and journalist Jess Walter wrote what's considered the definitive account of what happened at Ruby Ridge, and he's with us now. Welcome.

MCEVERS: So I think if you ask people what they remember about this story, they would say, you know, right-wing militia types holed up in their compound, refusing orders from the federal government. Eventually there's a standoff. People get killed. But that's not really the whole story, right? I mean, what are some of the misconceptions about this story?

WALTER: Yeah. Basically, you know, the Weavers were people who had run away from society and were living on an Idaho mountaintop, went to some meetings that the Aryan Nations and got pulled into a larger investigation of white supremacist groups like The Order, the terrorist group that had ravaged the United States in the '80s. And because of that, Randy Weaver sawed the barrels off some shotguns and sold them to an undercover ATF informant. And that started this chain of events that really went about as badly as you can - as you can imagine on both sides.

MCEVERS: How does each side tell the story? Like, it - for the right wing, how do they tell it? How do the feds tell it?

WALTER: Basically, to hear some people on the right tell it, Randy Weaver was a gentleman farmer and the government swooped in and tricked him into sawing the barrels off shotguns, and then gave him the wrong court date and threatened to throw him off his land, and then provoked a gunfight with him and shot his son and his dog, and then the next day murdered his wife.

And to hear the federal government tell it, Randy Weaver was a white separatist who went to Aryan Nations meetings and was hanging out with the worst of the worst, and because of that became the target of federal investigation. And then wouldn't show up for court, defied every attempt to follow the law, armed his kids with weapons and wore swastikas and marched on his land and defied the government. And again, you can make the case that both of those sides have some points.

MCEVERS: What are the dangers even today to having these two very different versions of what happened at Ruby Ridge?

WALTER: I think the big danger really is in not understanding exactly what happened. The radical right wing, which changes its name, you know, almost like a rebranding - they go from white separatist to white supremacist to white nationalist.

WALTER: They continue to use this as a rallying cry because this is their very worst nightmare. This is the thing that they warn can happen to Americans. And on the other side, law enforcement is always in danger of prosecuting people because of their beliefs rather than their actions.

MCEVERS: Yeah. Have the feds learned their lesson from Ruby Ridge? I mean, going forward when we - we're seeing - you know, obviously we're seeing takeovers of federal buildings, more protests and demonstrations. Are they better at their jobs?

WALTER: You only have to look at the way they handled radical right-wing groups after this and the patience with which federal authorities now treat these groups. I had one FBI agent describe it as Weaver fever, the thing they're trying to avoid, this sense that a small thing like a minor weapons violation can blow up into the deaths of three people. And so I definitely think that they have learned to not inflame these situations when possible. As we've seen, though, the - these ideas don't go away. They come back and they're recycled.

And we haven't really dealt with them. This is a stew of all of the things that, you know, make it difficult for us to have conversations at Thanksgiving or to read Facebook posts. You've got race. You have religion. You have guns. You have the myths of the West. You have this blend of these things that divide Americans in ways that we have not figured out how to resolve. They go back to our founding, to slavery, to the very things that drive us apart right now.

MCEVERS: Jess Walter is the author of "Ruby Ridge: The Truth And Tragedy Of The Randy Weaver Family." Thank you so much for your time today.

MCEVERS: As we just heard, Ruby Ridge is still a rallying cry for people on the militant far right, people like Cliven Bundy. Bundy was at the center of his own standoff against federal authorities in 2014. There's a trial going on in Las Vegas related to that armed standoff. NPR's Kirk Siegler reports on how Bundy supporters at the trial think about Ruby Ridge today.

KIRK SIEGLER, BYLINE: Ruby Ridge may have happened a quarter century ago, but for Shawna Cox, the standoff is still relevant today.

SHAWNA COX: Is that what we do in America? If we don't stand up and get the information, then it allows more of that kind of problem to happen. And we've allowed it more and more until they've become so strong that they can attack anyone.

SIEGLER: When Cox says they, she's talking about what she sees as an overreaching federal government. Twenty-five years after Ruby Ridge, Cox is a reliable presence outside the federal courthouse in Las Vegas, leading a collection of self-described patriots, conspiracy theorists, militia and far-right sympathizers waving American flags and clutching pocket-sized Constitutions. They protest many of the same things as people did at Ruby Ridge, only with a new cast of characters - Cliven Bundy and his followers. Shawna Cox sees a parallel to the Weavers.

COX: They - we have a force that comes in against a family that was - that's innocent.

SIEGLER: In fact, things are a little more murky. Unlike Randy Weaver, Cliven Bundy openly defied the federal government for more than two decades, refusing to pay a million dollars in public lands grazing fees. But both cases are hugely complex. And the men's deep mistrust of the federal government was and is still an inspiration for people like Roger Roots. Roots traveled here from Montana, where he attended militia protests in the Northwest going back to the Ruby Ridge standoff.

ROGER ROOTS: Any resistance to federal power is considered, you know, as just almost domestic terrorism, very dangerous. And of course I think there's a large sector of the American population that doesn't see it that way. We view firearms as absolutely healthy and a tool for protecting individual freedom.

SIEGLER: Randy Weaver was eventually acquitted. There are similar charges, including firearms, at the center of the case against Cliven Bundy and his followers. And it's clear people like Roots are counting on a sympathetic jury again, especially given the mood of the country in many rural areas right now.

ROOTS: I think the public is very inclined toward freedom fighters, you know? And that's what these guys are, both here and in the Randy Weaver case.

SIEGLER: One big difference between Ruby Ridge and today - social media, which anti-government activists like Shawna Cox use prolifically.

COX: We didn't even realize how much the media controlled the American people because you have a newspaper that comes out, and they can say whatever they want to and lead the people whichever direction. And they were.

SIEGLER: Back in the '90s, far-right militias sent out newsletters and talked on chat rooms, but they didn't have a megaphone to reach the masses like they do now. Kirk Siegler, NPR News, Las Vegas.

(SOUNDBITE OF KINOBE'S "CHASING CLOUDS")

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Ruby Ridge siege, 25 years later, a 'rallying cry' for today's white nationalists

The 25th anniversary of a deadly standoff is Monday, Aug. 21.

August 1992: Deadly standoff between police and white nationalist in Idaho

— -- Public protests by self-declared white supremacists. Criticism of how police handled a violent standoff. Three deaths.

These events recall last week’s outbursts in Charlottesville, Virginia, but actually describe a 25-year-old incident in a forested region of northern Idaho, about 40 miles south of the Canadian border.

That 11-day standoff starting Aug. 21, 1992, between federal agents and a heavily armed family at Ruby Ridge laid the groundwork for today’s anti-government sentiment and white supremacy movement displayed for all to see in Charlottesville, according to one expert.

“I think of it [Ruby Ridge] as the precursor for the last couple, three decades of extremism because it combined two things: white supremacy and rage against the government, and that is exactly the same two movements on the far right that has animated extremism on the far right up until today,” said Heidi Beirich, the director of the Intelligence Project at the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), a legal advocacy organization that monitors such extremist groups.

“Ruby Ridge is the beginning of all this. The right-wing media starts in the era after this . all of this builds out of the rage that was symbolized with this event,” she told ABC News.

Despite Beirich’s tracing the movement from Ruby Ridge to the present, the 1992 standoff is unique in many ways, as this look back shows:

The making of a suspect

The cabin at the top of Ruby Ridge was home to the Weaver family, built by Randy and Vicki Weaver when they relocated their family from Iowa to Idaho.

"[Randy Weaver] really was an apocalyptic living on a mountain top with his family,” said Jess Walter, a reporter who covered the standoff at the time and went on to write a book about it.

His book became a made-for-TV movie four years after the event, with Laura Dern starring as Vicki Weaver and a young Kirsten Dunst as daughter Sara Weaver.

In the years before the legal troubles that led to the fatal standoff, the Weaver family spent time on a nearby compound that belonged to the Aryan Nations, a white supremacist group.

The family said their time spent at the Aryan Nations compound was “for social reasons, they were looking for people to hang out with,” Walter explained. No one from the Weaver family formally became a member of the group, he added, “even though they espoused similar belief systems.”

White supremacist ideologies espouse what they call the inferiority of nonwhite races, according to the SPLC.

Randy Weaver was known to wear shirts that said, “Just Say No to ZOG,” referencing a hate slogan for Zionist Organized Government, and his son, Samuel, reportedly wore a swastika armband.

“They had all the trappings they just didn’t join the group,” Walter said.

While there, at some point in 1989, a confidential informant for the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms struck up a relationship with Weaver and, in a move that was later dismissed as entrapment, advised and persuaded Weaver to saw off the tops of shotguns, breaking federal law.

ATF agents used the charges to approach Weaver about becoming an informant himself, but he refused.

Weaver was arrested for sawing off the shotguns in January 1991 after ATF agents pretended they were having car trouble and Weaver and his wife stopped to help. Weaver later failed to appear in court and a bench warrant was issued.

Months of attempts by the U.S. Marshals Service to get Weaver to surrender peacefully went by, leading the government to install surveillance cameras on his property. On Aug. 21, 1992, a crew of six marshals went to surveil the property in person.

What happened on a hilltop in Idaho

The Weaver’s dog alerted the family of the marshals’ presence and Randy Weaver, son Sammy, 14, and their family friend Kevin Harris went to investigate, bringing weapons with them. A firefight ensued after one of the marshals fatally shot the dog.

The two sides exchanged gunfire and, afterwards, Sammy and Deputy U.S. Marshal Bill Degan lay dead.

In a subsequent report from the Ruby Ridge Task Force created by the Department of Justice, officials noted that they were "unable to determine conclusively who fired the first shot during the exchange of gunfire."

The next day, as Randy Weaver, his daughter Sara and Harris were going to visit the body of Sammy Weaver, which family members had moved to a nearby shed, an FBI sniper shot Randy Weaver in the armpit. As the three ran back into the house, the sniper fired a second shot that hit Harris in the chest and went through the door and fatally struck Vicki Weaver, who was standing behind the door while holding the family’s infant daughter.

As the fatal drama played out for days up at the cabin, all public updates came through FBI officials who kept reporters and the public at a checkpoint about a mile and a half from the scene. All told, writer Walter estimates, more than 200 members of federal, state and local law enforcement were involved in the standoff.

“There were two standoffs. There was one at the cabin and there was one down at the roadblock where the protesters had gathered,” Walter said of a mix of people that included locals and outsiders who had traveled to the remote spot in Idaho to show their support of the Weavers or condemn the government.

The updates from the FBI were not always accurate, as they did not initially have - and therefore did not disclose - correct information. For instance, Vicki Weaver was fatally shot on the second day of the standoff, which wasn’t publicly disclosed until day nine.

“The whole roadblock felt like dried kindling,” Walter said. “It would just take one lightning strike and this could really get worse.”

“The most terrifying night was when they announced that Vicki Weaver had been killed.”

“Angry self-described patriots would run up to the roadblock and they'd scream things like, ‘This means war’ and ‘Baby killer,’” Walter said, though no babies died in the standoff.

A civilian negotiator became involved and coordinated communications between the Weavers and federal authorities. The negotiator helped arrange for Harris to be brought out of the cabin on a stretcher so that he could be treated for his injuries. On Aug. 31, the day after Harris was removed, Weaver surrendered.

Randy Weaver and Harris were arrested on numerous charges, though Weaver was later acquitted of all charges except for the original charge of missing his court date. Harris was also acquitted of charges related to the death of the marshal, and a later murder charge in connection to the marshal’s death was dismissed in 1997 on the grounds of double-jeopardy.

In 1995, the Weaver family received an out-of-court settlement from the federal government in a wrongful death suit. Randy Weaver received $100,000 and his three daughters received $1 million each. The government did not admit any wrongdoing in the deaths of Vicki and Sammy Weaver.

Investigations by the Department of Justice and the FBI followed for years after the standoff, and Ruby Ridge was the subject of a 1995 hearing held by the Senate Judiciary Committee that focused on FBI actions at the scene and the agency’s handling of the subsequent investigations.

Sara Weaver, who is the only Weaver child who has previously spoken to the media about the incident, declined to be interviewed for this story and ABC News has been unable to reach Harris and Randy Weaver.

In the shadows of the standoff

The standoff at Ruby Ridge was not the only flashpoint between disaffected Americans and government officials around that time.

The deadly FBI siege in Waco, Texas, began in February 1993, about five months after the standoff at Ruby Ridge, and the bombing of an FBI office building in Oklahoma City occurred in April 1995.

Beirich, of the Southern Poverty Law Center, called the three incidents a “pattern” of “the same kind of events,” while Walter recalled that Waco and Oklahoma City rekindled interest in Ruby Ridge.

ABC News political commentator Cokie Roberts noted, “The overreaction of the government, and in the end, the deaths of three people and a dog [at Ruby Ridge], convinced people who hated the government that they were right. So it just played into that whole paranoid view and then when Waco was added on, [it] spawned a whole new society of anti-government groups.”

“I think the FBI learned a great deal from it,” Roberts said, noting that the reviews and investigations of the incident likely led to the FBI and other law enforcement agencies’ realizing “how not to do that again.”

The FBI field office that covers Idaho did not immediately return ABC News’ request for comment.

Reverberations of Ruby Ridge today

In the end, Walter told ABC News, “The fallout from Ruby Ridge was [that it] sort of mainstreamed some of those really right-wing conspiratorial beliefs and, in many ways, when you have conspiracy buffs saying the government’s out to kill you, and then a case like that happens, it just continues to reverberate and echo.”

One of the best-known, self-declared members of the so-called alt-right told ABC News that Ruby Ridge was a "particularly stunning example" of federal government overreach.

Jared Taylor, the editor of the American Renaissance magazine and leader of the associated group that he has described as a white advocacy organization, told ABC News that Ruby Ridge was "an outrage" and he instantly recalled specific details about the standoff, including the name of the FBI sharpshooter who killed Vicki Weaver.

The standoff "was an extraordinary example -- just like the Waco attack on the Branch Davidian -- of overweaning federal power,” he said. “This is something that many Americans, I think, legitimately fear.”

"Americans have short historical memories. but this was something that was so outrageous that in certain circles it has real notoriety," Taylor said, noting that the groups in question are likely those who "have a general distrust of government."

Taylor, who is a white nationalist and believes white identity is under attack, did not recall any Neo-Nazi protesters assembling at the roadblock in support of the Weavers, but he thinks that the issues connected to Ruby Ridge are not solely of interest to members of his ideology.

"Yes, I am a racial dissident, and because the federal government is very much in the business of making decisions that are objectively not in the interest of white [people], I am suspicious of that power but I want to make it very clear that it is not only people like myself that share that suspicion," Taylor told ABC News.

Walter, the reporter, said that while “the radical right-wing becomes mainstreamed every once in a while, and never more than now,” he doubts that the 2016 campaign, election or the administration of President Donald Trump “mainstreamed those beliefs, so much as those beliefs are always out there.”

Beirich partly disagrees, telling ABC that “these ideas -- whether they're the anti-government ideas or the racial ideas -- were pretty much kept to the margins of American politics . until recently.”

There’s been “a slow march through the institutions of the right-wing through the ‘90s, the first decades of the 2000s,” Beirich said, but it has reached a new point in the past two years, when there was a presidential candidate “who was openly racist, openly anti-Muslim, openly anti-immigration, openly anti-U.N., openly anti-globalization.”

“Those are all of the ideas from the extreme right and they finally made it into the mainstream,” she said.

When asked whether she expects that some people might celebrate or commemorate Monday’s 25th anniversary of the beginning of the standoff, Beirich said, “I’m sure they will.”

“These people have been talking about Ruby Ridge the whole way through,” she added.


THE AWFUL TRUTH OF RUBY RIDGE'

The Weavers were not the kind of people you'd want for neighbors. Dad was a venomous racist who couldn't hold a steady job. Mom was a religious fanatic who wore a pistol on her hip and raged about the coming apocalypse. Their kids toted rifles and sometimes paraded around wearing Nazi armbands.

"This isn't Leave It to Beaver,' " notes a federal agent in the CBS miniseries "Ruby Ridge: An American Tragedy," a factual, often intense retelling of the government's brutal operation against Randy and Vicki Weaver and their four children in August 1992. The Weavers were major weirdos, but as unconventional as their beliefs were, the family didn't deserve to be the target of a massive federal invasion force that suspended the Constitution and brought war to the remote Idaho mountains.

This two-part movie (airing at 9 tonight and Tuesday on Channel 9) isn't high art, but it is chilling history. It depicts a defining moment in the rise of the militia movement and the decline of many citizens' faith in the FBI. The event's epilogue is still unspooling as a grand jury probes alleged FBI coverups in Washington, and as federal law enforcement agencies try to confront religious and political extremists (such as the Montana Freemen) without resorting to excesses.

By television standards, "Ruby Ridge" is remarkably honest, evenhanded and gutsy. The feds look bad, but so do the Weavers. No heroes here.

Distraught by America's growing cultural pollution, Randy and Vicki moved from Iowa to northern Idaho's Panhandle in 1983 to home-school their children -- and then set about poisoning their kids' minds with the anti-black and anti-Jewish conspiracy theories of the Christian Identity movement. The movie does not shy from raw racial slurs, presenting an unlaundered version of Randy Weaver as opposed to the polite, sympathetic witness who testified in extensive Senate hearings last fall.

Randy Quaid plays Randy Weaver opaquely, as a bit of a lunkhead, but that's also true to life Vicki was the family's visionary and mouthpiece, fond of writing letters that damned government officials as agents of "Babylon." Laura Dern is eerily compelling as the doomed Vicki, whose face was blown off by an FBI sniper given a license to kill by Washington higher-ups.

The deaths of Vicki, 43, and the Weavers' 14-year-old son Sammy -- who was shot in the back while fleeing heavily armed, camouflaged federal marshals -- are gory and tough to watch, but they are not played for cheap catharsis. The central horror of this story is how callously and recklessly the government's top law enforcement agents responded to the perceived threat of Randy Weaver, who was wanted on a relatively puny charge of selling two sawed-off shotguns to a federal informant.

The incident started when one of the marshals -- who were on a surveillance mission and under orders not to confront the family -- shot the Weavers' yellow Labrador retriever in its backside. After the initial firefight that left Sammy Weaver and a deputy U.S. marshal dead, the Weavers retreated to their ramshackle cabin and didn't fire another shot throughout the 11-day siege.

Nevertheless, officials amassed an army of more than 300 federal, state and local Rambos, complete with Humvees and armored personnel carriers. "It looks like Vietnam," says one agent clad in jungle fatigues, surveying the tent city. Orders went out for any armed men seen near the cabin to be shot on sight -- so-called "rules of engagement" that represented an illegal departure from standard FBI deadly force policy.

The feds also spewed misinformation about Aryan zealots in a mountain fortress who'd "pinned down" lawmen, fired from a pickup truck and even tried to shoot down an FBI helicopter they warned of bombs and tunnels on the property, Randy's ties to bank robbers, and Vicki's willingness to kill her own children. It was either wild speculation or pure bunk.

"Have you people lost your minds?" Vicki's father (G.W. Bailey) asks an FBI agent who claims Randy has booby-trapped the cabin. "They are a family with a little baby crawling around!"

One flaw in this otherwise scrupulous production is the script's use of bogus names for various real-life characters, including all of the government's operatives. Timid lawyers for CBS and the production company warned against identifying the U.S. marshals and FBI officials who carried out the Ruby Ridge surveillance and siege, according to executive producers Judith Regan and Edgar Scherick. This seems ridiculously cautious, given that the mini-series was based on an exceptionally well-reported book by Jess Walter, "Every Knee Shall Bow," and that the book draws from court proceedings and government records. Even the slain marshal, William Degan, gets a phony name.

The caution no doubt has something to do with a lawsuit brought against federal officials by Kevin Harris, a friend of the Weaver family who was charged with Degan's murder and acquitted (as was Randy Weaver). While the Justice Department paid the Weavers $3.1 million last summer to drop their claims against the government, Harris is seeking $10 million in damages "for the denial of constitutional rights," according to his attorney. (Harris, 28, was gravely wounded by the same sniper bullet that passed through Vicki's jaw.)

The role of Harris (played by Darren Burrows) is underdeveloped, but the strongest characters here tend to be those with forceful personalities in actual life. These include crack cowboy defense lawyer Gerry Spence (Joe Don Baker), who represented Weaver in the criminal trial swaggering ex-Green Beret Col. James "Bo" Gritz (Bob Gunton), who negotiated an end to the siege and FBI field commander Eugene Glenn (called Agent Wilkes in the movie and played by Frederick Coffin), whom Washington higher-ups later attempted to scapegoat for the illegal rules of engagement.

In its adherence to the essential facts, "Ruby Ridge: An America Tragedy" does justice to this shameful episode. Whether FBI Director Louis Freeh and the Justice Department prosecutors investigating the tragedy reach the same truth remains to be seen. As the cliche advises: Stay tuned. CAPTION: Laura Dern and Randy Quaid as the Weavers Joe Don Baker as their lawyer, Gerry Spence and Bradley Pierce as their son, Sammy.


Horiuchi was born on June 9, 1954 in Hawaii as the son of a U.S. Army officer. He later attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, and graduated in 1976. He served as an infantry officer in the U.S. Army. Afterwards he joined the FBI, and by 1999 had been an FBI agent for at least 15 years. [1]

In 1992, while working at sniper position Sierra 4 for the FBI Hostage Rescue Team at Ruby Ridge, Horiuchi shot and killed Vicki Weaver and also wounded her husband, Randy Weaver, and family friend Kevin Harris. [2]

After his first shot hit and wounded Randy Weaver, Horiuchi fired a second shot at Kevin Harris, who was armed, some 20 seconds later as Harris was running into the Weaver home. The bullet fired at Harris struck and killed Vicki Weaver through the doorway just beyond Harris, who was entering the home. Weaver was holding her 10-month-old child behind the door through which Harris was attempting to enter [2] [3] the round also struck and wounded Harris. [4]

Following the conclusion of the trial of Randy Weaver and Kevin Harris in 1993, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) created a "Ruby Ridge Task Force" to investigate allegations made by Weaver's defense attorney Gerry Spence. On June 10, 1994, the Task Force delivered its 542-page report to the DOJ Office of Professional Responsibility. The Report stated: "With regard to the two shots fired on August 22, we concluded that the first shot met the standard of 'objective reasonableness' the Constitution requires for the legal use of deadly force but that the second shot did not satisfy that standard." [5]

The surviving members of the Weaver family received $3.1 million in 1995 to settle their civil suit brought against the U.S. government for wrongful deaths of Vicki Weaver and 14-year-old Samuel Weaver, who was killed the day before during an encounter with U.S. Marshals. In the out-of-court settlement, the government did not admit any wrongdoing. In a separate suit, Harris received a $380,000 settlement from the U.S. government in 2000. [6]

Manslaughter charge Edit

In 1997, Boundary County, Idaho Prosecutor Denise Woodbury, with the help of special prosecutor Stephen Yagman, charged Horiuchi in state court with involuntary manslaughter over his killing of Vicki Weaver. The U.S. Attorney filed a notice of removal of the case to federal court, which automatically took effect under the statute for removal jurisdiction [7] where the case was dismissed by U.S. District Judge Edward Lodge on May 14, 1998, who cited the supremacy clause of the Constitution which grants immunity to federal officers acting in the scope of their employment. [2]

The decision to dismiss the charges was reversed by an en banc panel of the Ninth Circuit, which held that enough uncertainty about the facts of the case existed for Horiuchi to stand trial on state manslaughter charges. [2] Ultimately, the then-sitting Boundary County prosecutor, Brett Benson, who had defeated Woodbury in the 2000 election, decided to drop the charges, because he felt it was unlikely the state could prove the case and too much time had passed. Yagman, the special prosecutor, responded that he "could not disagree more with this decision than I do." [8]

The Ninth Circuit granted Boundary County's motion to dismiss the case against Horiuchi on September 14, 2001. [9]

On September 13, 1993, Charles Riley, a fellow FBI sniper deployed during the Waco Siege claimed that he had heard Horiuchi shooting from "Sierra One", an FBI-held house in front of the compound holding eight snipers, including Horiuchi and Christopher Curran, on April 19, 1993. Riley later retracted his statement, saying that he had been misquoted, and that he had only heard snipers pada Sierra One announce that shots had been fired oleh Branch Davidians. Riley later clarified that he had heard a radio report from Sierra One that someone at that position had witnessed gunfire from within the compound." [10]

Three of the twelve expended .308 Winchester shell cases that the Texas Rangers reported finding in the house were at Horiuchi's position. However, officials maintain that they could have been left behind from the earlier use of the house by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives snipers on February 28, 1993, and that it would be "nearly impossible" to match them to Horiuchi's rifle, as it had probably been fitted with a new barrel since that time. [11]

For the five months following the Waco inferno, Timothy McVeigh worked at gun shows and handed out free cards printed with Horiuchi's name and address, "in the hope that somebody in the Patriot movement would assassinate the sharpshooter". He wrote hate mail to the sniper, suggesting that "what goes around, comes around". McVeigh considered targeting Horiuchi, or a member of his family, before settling on a bombing attack on a federal building, choosing to target the Murrah Building. [12]


Dalam Sejarah Amerika

In August 1992, U.S. marshals engaged in a weeklong standoff with the family of Randall J. Weaver at the Weavers’ mountain-side home in northern Idaho, now popularly known as Ruby Ridge. The raid resulted in the deaths of Weaver’s wife Vicki, his son Samuel, and federal agent William Degan. A number of conspiracy theories cluster around the Ruby Ridge incident.

On one side, the Weavers believed that Zionists had taken control in the United States and planned to institute a tyrannous one-world government. In the wake of the siege, Randy Weaver has insisted that federal officials conspired to hide the truth of their own conduct prior to and during the siege.


On the other side, federal authorities believed that Randy Weaver was involved in a conspiracy by white supremacist groups to commit terrorist acts and subvert the U.S. government. And, finally, the events at Ruby Ridge confirmed the suspicions among many right-wing extremists that a Jewish-controlled U.S. government intends to disarm patriotic U.S. citizens.

Randy Weaver grew up in a small town in southwestern Iowa. Two years after graduating from high school in 1966, he enlisted in the army and underwent Special Forces training with the Green Berets, but never went to Vietnam. In 1971, he married Vicki Jordison. The Weavers became interested in biblical prophecy after reading Hal Lindsey’s The Late Great Planet Earth (1970), which interpreted the Old Testament through events in the modern world.

The Weavers quickly came to believe in the literal truth of the Bible and, through their readings, developed the belief that the Old Testament predicted many of the global conflicts in the modern world, such as the rise of communism. They also came to believe that the forces of evil—controlled by Communists and Jewish bankers—were preparing to invade the United States and usher in the Last Days.

In 1983, the Weavers moved to northern Idaho with their two children, Sara and Samuel, in order to separate themselves from modern society and await the Tribulation. They built their own home on the mountain, stockpiled food and other provisions, and trained their children in the use of firearms.

While in Idaho, the Weavers came into contact with many people who held beliefs similar to their own: white supremacists, survivalists, and members of the religious movement called Christian Identity. But even in rural Idaho, which in the 1980s was home to some of the most notorious white supremacist groups in U.S. history, the Weavers’ beliefs were iconoclastic.

They considered themselves separatists, not supremacists, and lived their lives according to the strict rules of the Old Testament and other arcane religious writings, such as the biblical apocrypha. Although they made friends with members of groups like the Aryan Nations, the Weavers never officially joined any organized group.

They did, however, attend the Aryan Congress meetings at the Aryan Nations compound in Hayden Lake, Idaho. Their attendance at the Aryan Congress was significant for two reasons. First, in the mid-1980s, the American West, and Idaho in particular, was a principal concern for both the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF).

In 1983 and 1984, an offshoot of the Aryan Nations calling itself the Bruders Schweigen, or the Order, launched a wave of crime that included bank robbery, an armored car heist in Seattle that netted a half million dollars, and the murder of Alan Berg, a prominent talk-radio host in Denver. By 1985, following tips from informants and a series of raids, federal authorities had successfully captured and convicted twenty-two members of the Order.

Following that success, FBI and BATF investigations of Aryan Nations were ongoing. The Weavers’ attendance at the Aryan Congress was also significant because it was there, in 1986, that Randy Weaver befriended Kenneth Fadeley, an undercover BATF informant calling himself Gus Magisono.

Three years later, in October 1989, Weaver agreed to sell Fadeley two sawn-off shotguns and soon after, federal agents threatened to arrest Weaver unless he agreed to become an informant himself. When Weaver refused, a grand jury indicted him on federal weapons violations. At his indictment hearing, Weaver’s trial date was set for 19 February 1992.

On 7 February of that year, Weaver was sent a notice by the U.S. attorney that his trial date had been changed to 20 March, when in fact it had been changed to 20 February. The Weavers maintained that this and other dealings they had with law enforcement officials were deliberate acts of deception, further proof that they had been targeted for their beliefs and purposely set up as part of a government conspiracy.

After Weaver failed to appear for his appointed court date, federal agents began what would eventually be an eighteen-month surveillance of the Weaver cabin. During this time, they developed a threat assessment of Weaver that a subsequent investigation by a Senate subcommittee determined was deeply flawed.

That assessment included the charges that Weaver was a neo-Nazi, that he had been convicted of engaging in white supremacist activities, that he was a suspect in a number of bank robberies meant to finance antigovernment terrorism, that the Weaver home was protected by booby-traps and explosives, that Weaver had made threats on the life of the president, and that he was to be treated as extremely dangerous.

In fact, Weaver had never been convicted or charged with any crime prior to his arrest on the federal gun charge and the subcommittee determined that the threat assessment was greatly exaggerated. Nevertheless, based on these assessments, the BATF deployed its Special Operations Group (SOG) to help bring Weaver in.

On 21 August 1992, a group of federal marshals, under heavy camouflage, approached the Weaver cabin. At the same time, fourteen-year-old Samuel Weaver and a family friend named Kevin Harris were out hunting with the family dog, Stryker. When the dog approached the agents, it was shot, setting off a flurry of gunfire that wounded Harris and killed Samuel Weaver and one of the agents, William Degan.

The following day, an FBI sniper, Lon Horiuchi, fired two shots into the Weaver cabin, one of which wounded Randy Weaver. The second shot, which traveled through a window of the Weaver cabin, hit Vicki Weaver in the face as she held her infant daughter Elisheba. Vicki was killed instantly. Following the sniper fire, the remaining members of the Weaver family continued to resist surrender.

Finally, after another week of negotiations and the intervention of Christian Patriot leader Bo Gritz, Randy Weaver agreed to turn himself over to authorities. Weaver and Harris were charged with murder in the death of Marshal Degan and several other felonies, including assault and conspiracy to subvert the United States government.

Represented by celebrity defense attorney Gerry Spence, both men were acquitted of all charges and, in addition, a jury found that Weaver’s original arrest on a weapons violation was the result of entrapment. Weaver was convicted only of a failure to appear for trial.

Following the trial, Weaver filed a wrongful death suit in the killing of Vicki, which was settled out of court in 1994 for over $3 million. In 1995, a Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Government Information held public hearings to address allegations of government misconduct.

At issue were questions regarding FBI and BATF handling of the investigation of Randy Weaver, the rules of engagement used by SOG during the raid, and allegations of a subsequent cover-up during the trial. In each case, the committee determined that the government had acted irresponsibly and, in the case of the rules of engagement, unconstitutionally.

Among their findings were FBI orders that instructed federal snipers to shoot on sight any member of the Weaver family seen to be carrying a weapon, despite the fact that only Randy was charged with a crime. The committee also concluded that Horiuchi’s second shot, which killed Vicki Weaver, was unjustified under FBI policy and the United States Constitution.

Selanjutnya, komite menemukan bahwa pejabat federal berusaha untuk menutupi kesalahan mereka dalam beberapa cara: dengan gagal mengikuti protokol investigasi yang tepat, gagal memberikan atau menunda rilis dokumen yang relevan untuk pengadilan, dan menunjukkan pilih kasih ketika meninjau tindakan teman dan rekan kerja. Bagi banyak orang di sayap kanan ekstrem, temuan subkomite Senat memberikan bukti konspirasi yang telah lama mereka curigai.

Menurut pernyataan Timothy McVeigh sendiri, perlakuan terhadap Weaver dalam insiden Ruby Ridge, ditambah dengan penanganan serupa oleh pemerintah atas pengepungan Cabang Davidian di Waco, Texas, memainkan peran penting dalam keputusannya untuk mengebom sebuah gedung federal di Oklahoma City. .

Satu dekade kemudian, Ruby Ridge terus membuat marah para aktivis antipemerintah: pada Juni 2001, pengadilan banding federal memutuskan bahwa Lon Horiuchi dapat diadili atas tuduhan pembunuhan tak disengaja atas pembunuhan Vicki Weaver. Tetapi minggu berikutnya, seorang jaksa Idaho menolak untuk melanjutkan kasus tersebut, dengan alasan tidak cukup bukti, dan membatalkan dakwaan. Randy Weaver tinggal bersama anak-anaknya yang tersisa di Iowa.


Tonton videonya: ОТКРЫТЫЙ УРОК: Ruby для начинающих Хекслет (Mungkin 2022).