Podcast Sejarah

Benjamin rush - Sejarah

Benjamin rush - Sejarah

Terburu-buru, benyamin

Benjamin Rush lahir pada tahun 1745 tidak jauh dari Philadelphia. Dia menerima pendidikan awalnya di Nottingham Academy di Maryland, dan kemudian lulus dari College of New Jersey (Princeton University hari ini). Dia kembali ke Philadelphia pada tahun 1760 dan memutuskan untuk belajar kedokteran. Enam tahun kemudian, setelah bekerja magang di dokter di daerah Philadelphia, ia pergi ke Skotlandia untuk belajar di Universitas Edinburgh. Dia dianugerahi gelar dari sekolah ini pada tahun 1768. Setelah studinya di Skotlandia, Rush menghabiskan sedikit lebih banyak waktu berkeliling Eropa dan kemudian kembali ke Philadelphia pada tahun 1769.

Begitu tiba di Philadelphia, Rush memulai latihannya sendiri dan segera menjadi cukup sukses. Dia menjadi profesor kimia pertama di negara itu ketika dia mulai mengajar di College of Philadelphia dan dia bahkan menulis buku teks pertama koloni di bidang subjek ini. Rush mengenal banyak pria terkenal saat ini, termasuk Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, dan Thomas Paine. Rush-lah yang mendorong Paine untuk menulis karyanya yang terkenal, Common Sense, dan dia bahkan memberi Paine judul karya yang sangat terkenal itu.

Pada bulan Juni 1776, Rush hadir di konferensi patriot Pennsylvania di mana dia membantu menulis deklarasi dukungan koloni ini untuk kemerdekaan nasional. Saat itulah dia diminta untuk melayani di Kongres Kontinental. Namun, pelayanannya di sana sangat singkat, dan ketenarannya lebih merupakan hasil dari pekerjaan umum lainnya yang melibatkannya.

Benjamin Rush adalah pendukung kuat Konstitusi Federal, dan pada 1787 ia menerbitkan sejumlah artikel persuasif dalam pembelaannya di berbagai surat kabar. Dari 1789 hingga 1790, Rush hadir di konvensi konstitusional Pennsylvania. Di kemudian hari, dari tahun 1797 hingga 1813, ia memegang posisi Bendahara U. S. Mint.

Seorang idealis sejati, Rush menjadi pelopor sejumlah gerakan kemanusiaan dan sosial. Dia bekerja untuk penghapusan perbudakan, serta reformasi pendidikan dan penjara. Selain itu, ia bekerja keras untuk mempromosikan kesederhanaan dan mengakhiri hukuman mati.

Benjamin Rush, seorang korban epidemi tifus, meninggal pada tahun 1813 pada usia enam puluh tujuh tahun. Dia dimakamkan di Christ Burial Ground Philadelphia.

.


Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Negara Bagian Timur: Penjara Dengan Masa Lalu

Pada tahun 1787, empat tahun setelah Perang Revolusi Amerika, Amerika Serikat adalah negara yang penuh dengan kemungkinan, dan tidak ada kota yang merasakan kegembiraan lebih dari Philadelphia. Delegasi seperti Alexander Hamilton dan James Madison berkumpul di Independence Hall untuk merancang apa yang kemudian menjadi Konstitusi. Pada tahun yang sama, beberapa blok jauhnya dari Independence Hall, di rumah Benjamin Franklin, sekelompok pemimpin sipil lainnya berkumpul untuk memperdebatkan masalah yang sama sekali berbeda: reformasi penjara.

Kondisi di Penjara Walnut Street yang terletak tepat di belakang Independence Hall sangat memprihatinkan. Laki-laki dan perempuan, orang dewasa dan anak-anak, pencuri dan pembunuh dipenjarakan bersama-sama di kandang kotor yang sarat penyakit, di mana pemerkosaan dan perampokan sering terjadi. Para sipir tidak banyak berusaha untuk melindungi para tahanan dari satu sama lain. Sebaliknya, mereka menjual alkohol kepada para tahanan, hingga hampir dua puluh galon sehari. Makanan, panas, dan pakaian ada harganya. Bukan hal yang aneh bagi para tahanan untuk mati karena kedinginan atau kelaparan. Sekelompok warga yang peduli, menyebut diri mereka Masyarakat Philadelphia untuk Mengurangi Kesengsaraan Penjara Umum, memutuskan bahwa ini tidak boleh berlanjut. Apa yang akan mereka usulkan mengatur panggung untuk reformasi penjara tidak hanya di Pennsylvania, tetapi juga di seluruh dunia.

Sejak awal, Pennsylvania bertekad untuk berbeda dari koloni lain. Pendiri William Penn membawa nilai-nilai Quakernya ke koloni baru, menghindari hukum pidana keras yang dipraktikkan di sebagian besar Amerika Utara Britania, di mana kematian adalah hukuman standar untuk serangkaian kejahatan, termasuk penolakan terhadap satu "Tuhan yang benar", penculikan, dan sodomi. Penn, sebaliknya, mengandalkan hukuman penjara dengan kerja paksa dan denda sebagai pengobatan untuk sebagian besar kejahatan, sementara hukuman mati tetap hanya untuk pembunuhan. Tetapi setelah Penn meninggal pada tahun 1718, kelompok-kelompok konservatif menyingkirkan sistemnya yang berbasis Quaker, dan memasukkan pembalasan keras yang merupakan norma di tempat lain. Penjara hanya menjadi pusat penahanan bagi tahanan saat mereka menunggu beberapa bentuk hukuman fisik atau hukuman mati. Perlu tujuh puluh tahun lagi sebelum ada orang yang mencoba menghapus hukum pidana yang berat ini.

Dr Benjamin Rush adalah seorang dokter Philadelphia terkemuka dengan minat dalam politik. Pada 1776, ia bertugas di Kongres Kontinental Kedua dan menandatangani Deklarasi Kemerdekaan. Lebih dari satu dekade kemudian, ia akan memimpin dorongan untuk ratifikasi Konstitusi federal. Dia adalah seorang abolisionis vokal, dan kemudian akan mendapatkan gelar "bapak psikiatri Amerika" untuk pengamatannya yang inovatif tentang "penyakit pikiran."

Sebagai pelatihan dokter yang baru dicetak di London pada tahun 1768, Rush bertemu dengan Benjamin Franklin yang saat itu menjabat sebagai agen Parlemen untuk Majelis Pennsylvania. Franklin, seorang selebritas di antara orang-orang Paris, mendesak pemuda berusia dua puluh dua tahun yang penasaran untuk menyeberangi Selat Inggris dan mengalami pemikiran Pencerahan yang memenuhi ruang tamu Prancis. Tahun berikutnya, Rush melakukannya. Dia berbaur di antara para ilmuwan, filsuf dan sastrawan, mendengarkan teori-teori Eropa progresif tentang masalah-masalah seperti kejahatan dan hukuman yang pada akhirnya akan mengikutinya ke Amerika.

Pada tahun 1787, Rush kembali ke perusahaan Franklin dan orang-orang Amerika sezamannya yang menyatakan bahwa perubahan radikal diperlukan tidak hanya di penjara di Walnut Street, tetapi di seluruh dunia. Dia yakin bahwa kejahatan adalah "penyakit moral", dan menyarankan "rumah pertobatan" di mana para tahanan dapat merenungkan kejahatan mereka, mengalami penyesalan spiritual dan menjalani rehabilitasi. Metode ini kemudian disebut Sistem Pennsylvania dan lembaga pemasyarakatan. Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, juga dikenal sebagai Pennsylvania Prison Society, setuju, dan mulai meyakinkan Persemakmuran Pennsylvania.

Perubahan dilakukan di Penjara Walnut Street' narapidana dipisahkan berdasarkan jenis kelamin dan kejahatan, lokakarya kejuruan dilembagakan untuk mengisi waktu para tahanan, dan banyak perilaku kasar dihapuskan' tapi itu tidak cukup. Populasi Philadelphia tumbuh dengan pesat, dan begitu pula unsur kriminalnya. Sebuah penjara dengan skala yang lebih besar diperlukan untuk memenuhi misi masyarakat penjara. Agar pertobatan benar-benar terjadi, isolasi penuh setiap tahanan perlu terjadi, dan ini tidak mungkin dilakukan di penjara yang penuh sesak ini.

Pembangunan Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Negara Bagian Timur dimulai di kebun buah ceri di luar Philadelphia pada tahun 1822. Desain yang dipilih, dibuat oleh arsitek kelahiran Inggris John Haviland, tidak seperti yang pernah terlihat sebelumnya: tujuh sayap blok sel individual yang memancar dari pusat pusat. Lembaga pemasyarakatan dibuka pada tahun 1829, tujuh tahun sebelum selesai, tetapi lembaga tersebut terbukti merupakan keajaiban teknologi. Dengan pemanas sentral, toilet siram, dan kamar mandi pancuran di setiap sel pribadi, lembaga pemasyarakatan itu menyombongkan kemewahan yang bahkan Presiden Andrew Jackson tidak dapat menikmatinya di Gedung Putih.

Charles Williams, seorang petani yang dihukum dua tahun karena pencurian, akan menjadi narapidana nomor satu. Pada 23 Oktober 1829, Williams dikawal ke penjara baru dengan tudung tanpa mata ditempatkan di atas kepalanya. Ini dilakukan untuk mengamankan anonimitas dan integrasi akhirnya ke dalam masyarakat setelah dibebaskan, karena tidak ada yang akan mengenali wajahnya dari penjara. Tapi itu juga melayani tujuan lain: untuk memastikan bahwa tidak akan ada peluang untuk melarikan diri, karena Williams tidak akan pernah melihat penjara di luar sel pribadinya. Komunikasi dengan penjaga dilakukan melalui lubang makan kecil. Para narapidana hidup dalam isolasi total, dengan satu-satunya milik mereka adalah Alkitab, dan tugas-tugas seperti membuat sepatu dan menenun untuk mengisi waktu mereka.

Delegasi dari seluruh dunia datang untuk mempelajari Sistem Pennsylvania yang terkenal. Alex de Tocqueville memuji konsep tersebut, menulis tentang perjalanannya tahun 1831: "Bisakah ada kombinasi yang lebih kuat untuk reformasi daripada kesendirian. menuntun [seorang tahanan] melalui refleksi penyesalan, melalui agama harapan membuatnya rajin dengan. kemalasan?" Yang lain juga setuju. Lebih dari 300 penjara di seluruh Eropa, Amerika Selatan, Rusia, Cina dan Jepang akan didasarkan pada model Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Negara Bagian Timur. Tetapi beberapa tidak begitu yakin dengan metode ini. Charles Dickens, setelah kunjungannya pada tahun 1842, menulis dengan kritis: "Saya yakin bahwa mereka yang merancang sistem ini tidak tahu apa yang mereka lakukan. daripada siksaan apapun terhadap tubuh.”

Keraguan Dickens akan menang. Pada tahun 1913, Negara Bagian Timur menyerah pada Sistem isolasi dan penyesalan Pennsylvania. Tahanan berbagi sel, bekerja bersama, dan bahkan bermain dalam olahraga terorganisir. Francis Dolan, manajer situs Situs Sejarah Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Negara Bagian Timur, menjelaskan, "Sistem kurungan isolasi hampir tidak mungkin dipertahankan mengingat teknologi awal abad ke-19, dan runtuh di bawah beban moral luhurnya sendiri." Dan seperti penjara di Walnut Street, lembaga pemasyarakatan itu, kata Dolan, "dikutuk oleh pertumbuhan pesat Philadelphia." Apa yang semula dimaksudkan untuk menahan sekitar 300 tahanan, pada tahun 1920-an, dipaksa untuk menampung sekitar 2.000 orang. Semakin banyak sel yang dibangun, termasuk yang dibangun di bawah tanah tanpa jendela, lampu atau pipa ledeng. Akhirnya, kesendirian bukan tentang penebusan, tetapi hukuman.

Pada tahun 1960-an, Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Negara Bagian Timur runtuh. Pada tahun 1971 secara resmi ditutup oleh negara bagian Pennsylvania. Selama 142 tahun, lembaga pemasyarakatan itu menahan sekitar 75.000 narapidana, termasuk gangster Al Capone. Dideklarasikan sebagai tengara bersejarah nasional pada tahun 1965, penjara dibuka sebagai situs bersejarah pada tahun 1994. Saat ini turis, dan bukan penjahat, berjalan di bawah langit-langit berkubah dan skylight bangunan neo-Gothic yang pernah mewakili ambisi moral para pendiri Amerika.


Fakta tentang Benjamin Rush 7: Psikiatri Amerika

Rush memainkan peran penting dalam perkembangan psikiatri Amerika karena ia mempelajari tentang gangguan mental.

Fakta tentang Benjamin Rush 8: orang tua

Ibunya adalah Susanna Hall, sedangkan ayahnya adalah John Harvey Rush. Ada tujuh anak dalam keluarga itu. Dia adalah anak keempat. Rush muda dibesarkan oleh orang tuanya di sebuah perkebunan di Philadelphia County.


Isi

kelangkaan adalah kata benda yang dibangun dari tahun 1930-an berdasarkan kata Prancis tidak bagus, yang, seperti padanan bahasa Inggrisnya, menghina dan memiliki arti yang berbeda dari "orang kulit hitam". [3] [4] Penggunaan kata dalam gerakan kecerobohan adalah cara membayangkan kembali kata sebagai bentuk emik pemberdayaan. Istilah ini pertama kali digunakan dalam pengertian yang sekarang oleh Aimé Césaire, dalam edisi ketiga (Mei-Juni 1935) dari L'Étudiant noir, [5] sebuah majalah yang dia mulai di Paris dengan sesama mahasiswa Léopold Senghor dan Léon Damas, serta Gilbert Gratiant, Leonard Sainville, Louis T. Achille, Aristide Maugée, dan Paulette Nardal. Kata itu muncul dalam karya pertama Césaire yang diterbitkan, "Conscience Raciale et Révolution Sociale," dengan judul "Les Idées" dan rubrik "Négreries", yang terkenal karena penolakannya terhadap asimilasi sebagai strategi yang valid untuk perlawanan dan untuk penggunaannya kata tidak bagus sebagai istilah positif. Masalah dengan asimilasi adalah bahwa seseorang berasimilasi ke dalam budaya yang menganggap budaya Afrika sebagai barbar dan tidak layak dilihat sebagai "beradab". Asimilasi ke dalam budaya ini akan dilihat sebagai penerimaan implisit dari pandangan ini. Ngre sebelumnya telah digunakan terutama dalam arti merendahkan. Césaire dengan sengaja memasukkan kata yang menghina ini ke dalam nama filosofinya. Pilihan Césaire untuk -garis akhiran telah dikritik, dengan Senghor mencatat bahwa "istilah kecerobohan telah sering diperebutkan sebagai sebuah kata sebelum diperebutkan sebagai sebuah konsep," [6] tetapi sufiksnya memungkinkan Césaire untuk menggambarkan kosakata ilmu rasis. [7]

Pada tahun 1885, antropolog Haiti Anténor Firmin menerbitkan sebuah karya awal De l'Égalité des Races Humaines (On the Equality of Human Races), yang diterbitkan sebagai sanggahan kepada penulis Prancis Count Arthur de Gobineau Essai sur l'inegalite des Races Humaines (Sebuah Esai tentang Ketimpangan Ras Manusia). Firmin mempengaruhi Jean Price-Mars, penggagas etnologi Haiti dan pengembang konsep Pribumi, dan antropolog Amerika abad ke-20 Melville Herskovits. [8] Intelektual kulit hitam secara historis bangga dengan Haiti karena revolusi budaknya yang dipimpin oleh Toussaint L'Ouverture selama tahun 1790-an. Césaire berbicara, dengan demikian, tentang Haiti sebagai "tempat négritude berdiri untuk pertama kalinya".

Harlem Renaissance, gaya sastra yang dikembangkan di Harlem di Manhattan selama tahun 1920-an dan 1930-an, memengaruhi filosofi Negritude. [10] Penulis Harlem Renaissance, termasuk Langston Hughes dan Richard Wright, membahas tema "noireisme" dan hubungan ras.

Selama tahun 1920-an dan 1930-an, mahasiswa dan cendekiawan kulit hitam muda, terutama dari koloni dan wilayah Prancis, berkumpul di Paris, di mana mereka diperkenalkan kepada penulis Harlem Renaissance, yaitu Langston Hughes dan Claude McKay, oleh Paulette Nardal dan saudara perempuannya Jane. Para suster Nardal berkontribusi pada diskusi Négritude dalam tulisan mereka dan juga memiliki Clamart Salon, tempat kedai teh kaum intelektual Afro-Prancis di mana filosofi Négritude sering dibahas dan di mana konsep untuk La revue du Monde Noir dikandung. [11] Paulette Nardal dan Dr. Leo Sajou dari Haiti yang diinisiasi La revue du Monde Noir (1931–32), sebuah jurnal sastra yang diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris dan Prancis, yang berusaha menarik para intelektual Afrika dan Karibia di Paris. Asosiasi Harlem ini dibagikan oleh pengembangan paralel negrismo di wilayah Karibia berbahasa Spanyol.

Catatan penting harus dibuat mengenai para suster Nardal dan dampaknya terhadap perkembangan Négritude. Ada kecenderungan dalam silsilah skolastik gerakan itu -- dan di dalam masyarakat secara keseluruhan -- untuk meminimalkan kontribusi perempuan, terutama perempuan kulit hitam. Para suster Nardal bertanggung jawab atas pengenalan Harlem Renaissance dan ide-idenya ke artikel Césaire, Senghor, dan Damas Jane Nardal tahun 1929 "Internationalisme noir" mendahului karya teori kritis pertama Senghor "What the Black Man Contributes", yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1939. Para suster Nardal, untuk semua ide mereka dan pentingnya Clamart Salon mereka, telah diminimalkan dalam perkembangan Négritude oleh dominasi gerakan maskulinis. Dia bahkan menulis sebanyak itu pada tahun 1960 ketika dia "mengeluh pahit" tentang kurangnya pengakuan kepadanya dan saudara perempuannya Jane mengenai pentingnya mereka bagi sebuah gerakan secara historis dan saat ini dikreditkan ke Césaire, Senghor, dan Damas. [12] Nama Nardal termasuk dalam daftar itu.

Meskipun masing-masing penggagas memiliki gagasannya sendiri tentang tujuan dan gaya Négritude, filosofi tersebut umumnya dicirikan oleh penentangan terhadap kolonialisme, penolakan terhadap dugaan ketidakmanusiawian Eropa, dan penolakan terhadap dominasi dan gagasan Barat. Gerakan ini juga tampaknya memiliki beberapa untaian Heideggerian dalam arti bahwa tujuannya adalah untuk mencapai "keadaan di dunia" orang kulit hitam, untuk menekankan bahwa individu kulit hitam memang memiliki sejarah dan budaya yang layak yang mampu berdiri di samping budaya negara lain secara setara. Juga penting adalah penerimaan dan kebanggaan menjadi kulit hitam dan perayaan sejarah, tradisi, dan kepercayaan Afrika. Gaya sastra mereka realistis dan mereka menghargai ide-ide Marxis.

Motivasi untuk gerakan Negritude adalah hasil dari ketidakpuasan, jijik, dan konflik pribadi Aimé Césaire, Leopold Senghor, dan Leon Damas atas keadaan pengalaman Afro-Prancis di Prancis. Ketiganya berbagi rasa pemberontakan pribadi untuk rasisme dan ketidakadilan kolonial yang melanda dunia mereka dan pendidikan Prancis mereka. Senghor menolak untuk percaya bahwa tujuan pendidikannya adalah "untuk membangun agama Kristen dan peradaban dalam jiwanya di mana sebelumnya hanya ada paganisme dan barbarisme". Rasa jijik Césaire muncul sebagai rasa malu ketika dia dituduh oleh beberapa orang Karibia tidak ada hubungannya dengan orang-orang Afrika—yang mereka anggap biadab. Mereka memisahkan diri dari Afrika dan menyatakan diri mereka beradab. Dia mencela para penulis dari Karibia sebagai "secara intelektual. korup dan secara literal dipelihara dengan dekadensi kulit putih". [12] Damas percaya ini karena kebanggaan yang akan diambil oleh para penulis ini ketika orang kulit putih dapat membaca seluruh buku mereka dan tidak dapat mengetahui kulit penulisnya.

Césaire adalah seorang penyair, dramawan, dan politikus dari Martinik. Dia belajar di Paris, di mana dia menemukan komunitas kulit hitam dan "menemukan kembali Afrika". Dia melihat Négritude sebagai fakta menjadi hitam, penerimaan fakta ini, dan penghargaan terhadap sejarah dan budaya, dan orang kulit hitam. Penting untuk dicatat bahwa bagi Césaire, penekanan pada penerimaan fakta "kegelapan" ini adalah cara untuk mencapai "dekolonisasi pikiran". Menurutnya, imperialisme barat bertanggung jawab atas kompleks inferioritas orang kulit hitam. Dia berusaha mengenali pengalaman kolonial kolektif individu kulit hitam —perdagangan budak dan sistem perkebunan. Ideologi Césaire sangat penting selama tahun-tahun awal la Négritude.

Baik Césaire—yang setelah kembali ke Martinik setelah studinya terpilih sebagai walikota Fort de France, ibu kota, dan perwakilan Martinik di Parlemen Prancis—maupun Senghor di Senegal tidak membayangkan kemerdekaan politik dari Prancis. Négritude akan, menurut Senghor, memungkinkan orang kulit hitam di tanah Prancis untuk memiliki "kursi di meja memberi dan menerima [Prancis] secara setara". Namun, Prancis akhirnya memberikan Senegal dan koloni Afrika lainnya kemerdekaan.

Penyair dan kemudian presiden pertama Sénégal, Senghor menggunakan Négritude untuk bekerja menuju penilaian universal orang Afrika. Dia menganjurkan penggabungan modern dari ekspresi dan perayaan adat dan ide tradisional Afrika. Penafsiran Négritude ini cenderung menjadi yang paling umum, terutama selama tahun-tahun berikutnya.

Damas adalah seorang penyair Guyana Prancis dan anggota Majelis Nasional. Dia memiliki gaya bertahan yang militan "kualitas hitam" dan menolak segala jenis rekonsiliasi dengan bule. Dua antologi tertentu sangat penting bagi gerakan tersebut, yang akan berfungsi sebagai manifesto untuk gerakan tersebut. Salah satunya diterbitkan oleh Damas pada tahun 1946, Poètes d'expression française 1900–1945. Senghor kemudian akan menerbitkan Antologi de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française pada tahun 1948. Pengenalan Damas pada antologi dan antologi dimaksudkan sebagai semacam manifesto bagi gerakan tersebut, tetapi antologi Senghor sendiri akhirnya mengambil peran itu. Meskipun itu akan menjadi "Kata Pengantar" yang ditulis oleh filsuf Prancis dan intelektual publik Jean-Paul Sartre untuk antologi yang akan mendorong Négritude ke dalam percakapan intelektual yang lebih luas.

Sebagai manifesto gerakan Négritude, pengenalan Damas lebih bersifat politis dan kultural. Ciri khas dari antologi dan kepercayaannya adalah bahwa Damas merasa pesannya adalah pesan untuk kaum terjajah pada umumnya, dan termasuk penyair dari Indocina dan Madagaskar. Ini sangat kontras dengan antologi Senghor, yang akan diterbitkan dua tahun kemudian. Dalam pendahuluan Damas menyatakan bahwa sekarang adalah zaman di mana "orang terjajah menjadi sadar akan hak dan kewajibannya sebagai penulis, sebagai novelis atau pendongeng, penulis esai atau penyair." Damas secara eksplisit menguraikan tema-tema antologi. Dia mengatakan, "Kemiskinan, buta huruf, eksploitasi manusia oleh manusia, rasisme sosial dan politik yang diderita oleh orang kulit hitam atau kuning, kerja paksa, ketidaksetaraan, kebohongan, pengunduran diri, penipuan, prasangka, kepuasan diri, pengecut, kegagalan, kejahatan yang dilakukan atas nama kebebasan, kesetaraan, persaudaraan, itulah tema puisi asli dalam bahasa Prancis ini." Pengenalan Damas memang merupakan panggilan dan penegasan untuk identifikasi budaya yang berbeda.

Pada tahun 1948, Jean-Paul Sartre menganalisis kecerobohan filsafat dalam sebuah esai yang disebut "Orphée Noir" ("Black Orpheus") [13] yang berfungsi sebagai pengantar volume puisi francophone bernama Antologi de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache, disusun oleh Léopold Senghor. Dalam esai ini, Sartre mencirikan kecerobohan sebagai kebalikan dari rasisme kolonial dalam dialektika Hegelian dan dengan itu dia membantu memperkenalkan isu-isu Négritude kepada para intelektual Prancis. Menurut pendapatnya, kecerobohan adalah "rasisme anti-rasis" (rasisme anti rasisme), sebuah strategi dengan tujuan akhir persatuan ras.

Négritude dikritik oleh beberapa penulis kulit hitam selama tahun 1960-an sebagai tidak cukup militan. Keorapetse Kgositsile mengatakan bahwa istilah kelangkaan didasarkan terlalu banyak pada Kegelapan menurut estetika Eropa, dan tidak dapat mendefinisikan jenis baru persepsi ke-Afrikaan yang akan membebaskan orang kulit hitam dan seni kulit hitam dari konseptualisasi Kaukasia sama sekali.

Dramawan, penyair, dan novelis Nigeria Wole Soyinka menentang Négritude. Dia percaya bahwa dengan sengaja dan blak-blakan bangga dengan etnis mereka, orang kulit hitam secara otomatis bersikap defensif. Menurut beberapa, dia berkata: "Un tigre ne proclame pas sa tigritude, il saute sur sa proie" (Perancis: Seekor harimau tidak menyatakan harimaunya, ia melompat ke mangsanya). [14] Namun faktanya, Soyinka menulis dalam esai tahun 1960 untuk klakson, "sang duiker tidak akan melukis 'duiker' di punggungnya yang indah untuk menyatakan duikernya, Anda akan mengenalnya dengan lompatannya yang elegan." [15] [16]

Setelah lama hening, ada kebangkitan Négritude yang dikembangkan oleh para sarjana seperti Souleymane Bachir Diagne (Universitas Kolombia), Donna Jones (Universitas California, Berkeley), [17] dan Cheikh Thiam [18] (Universitas Negeri Ohio) yang semuanya melanjutkan karya Abiola Irele (1936–2017). Buku Cheikh Thiam adalah satu-satunya studi sepanjang buku tentang Négritude sebagai filsafat. Ini mengembangkan pembacaan Diagne tentang Négritude sebagai filosofi seni, dan presentasi Jones tentang Négritude sebagai lebensphilosophie.

Dokter Amerika Benjamin Rush, penandatangan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat dan abolisionis awal, sering dikatakan menggunakan istilah negritude membayangkan "penyakit" retoris yang katanya merupakan bentuk kusta ringan, satu-satunya obatnya adalah menjadi putih. Penggunaan awal istilah ini mungkin tidak diketahui oleh Afro-Francophones yang mengembangkan filosofi Négritude selama abad ke-20. [19] Tapi atribusi ini telah diperdebatkan sebagai salah membaca sumber-sumber sekunder. [20]

Novelis Norman Mailer menggunakan istilah tersebut untuk menggambarkan kehadiran fisik dan psikologis petinju George Foreman dalam bukunya Perkelahian, sebuah tayangan jurnalistik dari pertarungan legendaris Ali vs. Foreman "Rumble in the Jungle" di Kinshasa, Zaire (sekarang Republik Demokratik Kongo) pada bulan Oktober 1974.

Kata tersebut juga digunakan oleh rapper Youssoupha dalam album eponimnya "Négritude" tetapi juga sebelum yang ini.


Fakta Benjamin Rush: Kematian

Charles Goodrich mengatakan ini dalam bukunya Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence

Nyawa Dr. Rush diakhiri pada 19 April, di tahun ke-68 usianya. Selama sakitnya, yang hanya berlangsung beberapa hari, rumahnya dipenuhi dengan kerumunan warga, seperti kecemasan umum sehubungan dengan kehidupan pria yang luar biasa ini. Ketika, akhirnya dia meninggal, berita kematiannya menyebar ke seluruh kota, dan ungkapan simpati yang mendalam diterima dari seluruh penjuru negeri.


Kisah Dickinson

Potret Dr. Benjamin Rush oleh Thomas Sully, yang dikenal sebagai seniman potret Amerika terbesar pada masanya, disumbangkan ke Galeri Trout kampus.

Kelahiran Perguruan Tinggi Baru

Revolusi sedang berlangsung ketika Benjamin Rush, seorang dokter Philadelphia terkemuka, menyiapkan piagam untuk Dickinson College pada tahun 1783. Sebuah sekolah tata bahasa yang didirikan di Carlisle pada tahun 1773 berfungsi sebagai dasar dari perguruan tinggi baru tersebut. Dalam dekade sebelum meletakkan dasar bagi Dickinson, Rush telah berbaris bersama tentara Amerika, menandatangani Deklarasi Kemerdekaan, menjabat sebagai dokter untuk komunitas Philadelphia dan mempertahankan posisinya yang terkemuka di antara pemikiran politik dan intelektual progresif dari negara yang sedang berkembang. Dia adalah seorang revolusioner di tengah-tengah revolusi.

Pada intinya, Rush percaya pada kebebasan&mdashkebebasan berpikir dan kebebasan bertindak. Dan dia percaya sepenuhnya pada potensi Amerika untuk pencapaian yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya. Tetapi Rush juga percaya bahwa Revolusi Amerika tidak berakhir ketika senapan berhenti berbunyi, yang menurutnya, hanyalah permulaan. Sekarang Amerika telah berjuang untuk kebebasannya, orang Amerika perlu mempertahankan bangsa yang layak untuk kebebasan itu. Rush tahu bahwa Amerika hanya bisa memenuhi harapannya sendiri jika itu adalah negara yang dibangun dari warga negara yang berpendidikan. Jadi tujuh tahun setelah dia bertemu dengan anggota Kongres Kontinental lainnya untuk menambahkan tanda tangannya pada Deklarasi Kemerdekaan, Benjamin Rush menandatangani piagam sebuah perguruan tinggi baru di tempat yang saat itu merupakan perbatasan Amerika. Pada 9 September 1783, sebuah sekolah tata bahasa yang bermasalah di Carlisle diubah menjadi Dickinson College. Kurang dari seminggu sebelumnya, Perjanjian Paris secara resmi mengakhiri Revolusi dan menjamin pengakuan internasional atas Amerika Serikat. Dickinson adalah perguruan tinggi pertama yang dipetakan di Amerika Serikat yang baru ini.

Tuta libertas. Itulah kata-kata yang digunakan John Dickinson untuk menggambarkan kampus baru. Tuta liberta: "A benteng kebebasan." Untuk memajukan usaha pendidikannya, Rush meminta agar Dickinson&mdashdikenal secara luas sebagai "Penman Revolusi" dan gubernur Pennsylvania&mdashlkan dukungan dan namanya ke perguruan tinggi yang didirikan di perbatasan barat negara bagiannya. Dickinson dengan mudah diyakinkan, dan bersama-sama dia dan Rush memulai tugas merancang segel untuk perguruan tinggi. Gambar yang mereka buat&mdashmenampilkan topi liberty, teleskop, dan Alkitab terbuka&mdash tetap menjadi segel resmi perguruan tinggi hari ini. Ini mewakili misi yang telah mendarah daging di Dickinson College selama lebih dari dua abad: untuk menawarkan siswa a berguna dan progresif pendidikan dalam seni dan sains&mdashan pendidikan didasarkan pada rasa kewajiban sipil yang kuat untuk menjadi pemimpin warga negara.

Dalam banyak hal, Benjamin Rush&mdashorang yang menetapkan misi abadi ini&mdash adalah seorang pria sebelum waktunya. Dia adalah penentang perbudakan yang blak-blakan, pendukung vokal pendidikan yang setara bagi perempuan, pendukung hak-hak orang yang cacat mental dan penyedia perawatan kesehatan yang murah hati bagi orang miskin di Philadelphia. Suaranya kuat dan khas, dan dia percaya bahwa mahasiswa di Dickinson College dapat, seperti dia, mengembangkan suara dan posisi mereka sendiri dalam isu-isu saat ini. Mereka bisa menjadi pemimpin dan pembentuk bangsa baru.

Bentuk Ceritanya

Sebagai tempat untuk usaha ini, Rush memilih Carlisle, sebuah kota yang didirikan pada tahun 1751 sebagai pusat dari Cumberland County di Pennsylvania. Meskipun pusat pemerintahan, Carlisle juga merupakan kota perbatasan, terletak sekitar 25 mil sebelah barat Sungai Susquehanna&mdashat waktu itu, sebuah pos ekspansi ke barat (tidak seperti hari ini, ketika Carlisle duduk di persimpangan transportasi pusat, dengan Washington, DC Baltimore dan Philadelphia hanya dua jam lagi). Aman untuk berasumsi bahwa kombinasi aktivitas dan ketidakpastian ini akan menarik seorang pria dengan kepekaan pendidikan Rush.

Sejak awal, Carlisle dilihat sebagai semacam laboratorium untuk belajar&mdasha, misalnya, di mana mahasiswa Dickinson dapat menjelajah dari kampus ke gedung pengadilan daerah terdekat untuk menyaksikan sistem peradilan Amerika yang baru beraksi. Tapi itu juga tempat di mana, beberapa dekade kemudian, mahasiswa sains bisa belajar ekologi dengan benar-benar memeriksa hutan belantara Pegunungan Appalachian di sekitarnya. (Dickinson adalah perguruan tinggi pertama yang memperkenalkan studi lapangan ke dalam kurikulum sainsnya.) Pengalaman langsung semacam ini, menurut Rush, akan menumbuhkan pikiran yang akan memimpin generasi Amerika berikutnya. Waktu tidak mengurangi ambisi Rush. Hari ini, keterlibatan dengan dunia yang lebih luas ini terus memandu Dickinson&mdash melalui magang, studi lapangan, ilmu bengkel dan salah satu program pendidikan global paling luas di negara ini.

Pada tahun 1784, pada pertemuan resmi pertama pengawas perguruan tinggi di Carlisle, seorang menteri dan pendidik Skotlandia bernama Charles Nisbet terpilih sebagai kepala sekolah pertama, atau presiden, dari Dickinson College. Nisbet telah menjadi pendukung Revolusi Amerika dan terkenal di kalangan intelektual Amerika sebagai orang yang belajar. Kadang-kadang disebut "perpustakaan berjalan", Nisbet menetapkan standar pendidikan dan beasiswa yang tinggi untuk siswa Dickinson. Karena harapan yang tidak dapat ditekuk ini, perguruan tinggi dapat mencantumkan di antara lulusan paling awal seorang presiden AS, sepasang presiden perguruan tinggi, dua hakim Mahkamah Agung, seorang gubernur, bapak pendiri Smithsonian Institution, dan setidaknya dua abolisionis.

Old West dirancang oleh Benjamin Latrobe, arsitek dari Capitol Amerika Serikat.

Fajar Abad Baru

Old West dirancang oleh Benjamin Latrobe, arsitek dari Capitol Amerika Serikat. Ketika perguruan tinggi tumbuh dalam populasi dan keunggulan, Nisbet dan para pemimpin perguruan tinggi lainnya memutuskan untuk membangun sebuah "e" baru untuk dijadikan sebagai pusat kampus&mdashand untuk memungkinkan Dickinson pindah dari sekolah tata bahasa lama yang telah menjadi rumahnya sejak didirikan. Disebut "New College," gedung itu dibangun perlahan-lahan, selama empat tahun. Pada tahun 1803, saat perguruan tinggi bersiap untuk menetap di New College, badai salju berangin melanda Lembah Cumberland, mengaduk beberapa abu yang membara di ruang bawah tanah gedung. Abunya mulai menyala, dan tak lama kemudian bangunan itu habis terbakar.

Terlepas dari keputusasaan awal (Kolonel John Montgomery, seorang anggota Kongres AS dan wali Dickinson lama, menulis untuk memberi tahu Rush tentang kebakaran itu, meratapi bahwa semua harapan mereka "meledak dalam beberapa menit"), petunjuk nasib baik segera mulai memperbaiki situasi. . Misalnya, Benjamin Latrobe, arsitek U.S. Capitol, menawarkan untuk menyusun rencana gedung perguruan tinggi baru. Dan sumbangan pribadi dari individu seperti Thomas Jefferson dan James Madison memastikan rekonstruksi Dickinson College dengan cepat. Though Charles Nisbet would not live to see its completion, West College&mdashor Old West, as it's commonly called&mdashhosted its first classes in November 1805.

After his death, Nisbet was remembered as one of the most successful college presidents of his day. It's not surprising, then, that his standards of excellence held strong after his passing. His sensibilities remained integral in the life of the college. In 1812, for example, the college trustees authorized the purchase of Joseph Priestley's scientific equipment, which gave Dickinson state-of-the-art research capabilities in the sciences. (One of the pieces, a lens, is believed to have been used by Priestley in the discovery of oxygen.) It was this dedication to excellence and innovation in education that enticed the world-renowned chemist and social reformer Thomas Cooper to join the faculty as Dickinson's first chemistry professor. Thomas Jefferson, a contemporary, remarked that Cooper was "the greatest man in America in the powers of the mind and in acquired information, and that without exception."

Academic prowess, however, was not necessarily aligned with economic and political prosperity. A combination of financial straits and faculty dissention led to a college closing from 1816 to 1821. Over the period of several years, the trustees managed to overcome both of these hurdles. Barely a decade later, however, strife hit the college again. In the midst of the ongoing financial pressures of the early 19th century, Dickinson's faculty launched into a heated, often bitter, debate about the shape of the college's curriculum. In 1832, when the trustees were unable to resolve the issue, they ordered Dickinson's temporary closure.

Spencer Fullerton Baird, class of 1840, was a professor of natural history and science at the college. He became assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institute in 1850 and was later promoted to secretary of that institution.

Shortly after doors closed at Dickinson, the Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Episcopal (now United Methodist) Church approached Dickinson&rsquos trustees about reopening as a Methodist-affiliated college. Seeing the opportunity to continue operations, the existing Board of Trustees agreed to dissolve during its June 1833 meeting and handed over the keys to a newly constituted board. On June 7, 1833, the new board elected John Price Durbin as president of the college and chairman of the Board of Trustees.

In 1835, the Baltimore Conference began making an annual contribution to the college, which continues today and helps support the Center for Service, Spirituality & Social Justice .

Under the leadership of John Price Durbin, chaplain of the U.S. Senate, Dickinson College was revitalized. Teaching innovations, like Spencer Fullerton Baird's natural-science field trips (Baird, an alumnus and professor, later helped establish the Smithsonian Institution) and Charles Francis Himes' use of photography to teach chemistry, continued to enhance and distinguish the college's curriculum. Dickinson's law department, which was established in 1833, became the Dickinson School of Law in 1890 (and since 1917 has been independent of the college).

This track record of innovation has continued into Dickinson's modern history&mdashfor instance, in the 1980s Dickinson physics professor Priscilla Laws worked with colleagues to develop the widely used "workshop science" curriculum, in which hands-on learning and experimentation (rather than a steady diet of lectures) is at the core of classroom activity. And these innovations know no boundaries. In 1965, for example, Dickinson established a college-run study-abroad program in Bologna, Italy. Since then, Dickinson has sculpted one of the nation's most extensive global education programs, currently consisting of 39 programs in 24 countries on six continents.

Since its early years, the college has emphasized the importance of learning&mdashacademically and socially&mdashbeyond the classroom. Nineteenth-century students were involved in athletic clubs, social clubs and Greek letter societies. In fact, the first Pennsylvania chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was started at Dickinson in 1886. The college's first Greek fraternity was chartered in 1852. The college's student newspaper, The Dickinsonian, was founded 1872, placing it among the oldest ongoing newspapers in Pennsylvania. And the college's first intercollegiate football game was played against Gettysburg in 1879.

The Growth of a College

During the first half of the 20th century, Dickinson College weathered&mdashwith firm resolve&mdashthe difficulties posed by World Wars I and II and the Great Depression. Through curricular changes, the faculty found new ways to challenge its students, including one professor who began teaching a course on World War II a year before the United States even entered the conflict&mdasha risky enterprise, considering the national sentiment, led by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, that America would not get involved in the war. In the midst of the cultural maelstrom, the college trustees found the means to help Dickinson grow, more than doubling the size of the campus and increasing the student enrollment fourfold. During these years of international caution and isolationism, Dickinson developed exchange programs to bring foreign students to Carlisle, and likewise the college began to send Dickinsonians abroad.

In the latter part of the 20th century, Dickinson College continued to enhance its liberal arts curriculum, diversifying traditional disciplines to allow a wide variety of interdisciplinary and area studies opportunities. The college is home, for example, to one of the only community studies centers in the nation, where students can perform field research and take oral histories in local communities from different academic perspectives. Also, Dickinson houses the national headquarters of the Oral History Association and is home to the preeminent study-abroad journal Frontiers.

The college's cross-disciplinary approach has led to strengths in international education, the natural and mathematical sciences, the arts and pre-professional preparation. The curriculum has been further enriched by First-Year Seminars, internships/externships and student-faculty research and publishing. Over the past 10 years, 61 percent of all student-faculty research at Dickinson has resulted in published papers in professional journals, and 28 percent of those findings were presented at national and international conferences.

An Eye on the Past, a Foot in the Future

Proud of its heritage and true to the vision of its founders, Dickinson College remains committed to its historic mission: to prepare young people, by means of a useful and progressive education in the liberal arts and sciences, for engaged lives of citizenship and leadership in the service of society. As it looks toward the future, Dickinson is ever mindful of its revolutionary roots: unafraid to take risks, to speak out on important issues, to remain decisive, competitive and committed to its own brand of the liberal arts&mdashacademically rigorous, useful and unapologetically engaged with the world.

Learn more about the history of Dickinson on the Archives & Special Collections website.


Kesederhanaan

Benjamin Rush and Leslie Keeley’s work and many other doctors and scientists in the United States represented an increasing dissatisfaction with alcohol’s role, effect on the population and the importance of rehab facilities. With the introduction of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920, the temperance movement achieved its most tremendous success, making the manufacture, selling, and public binge drinking illegal. Restriction, which was supposed to “reduce violence and injustice, fix social problems, and enhance health and sanitation through rehab facilities in America,” ended up being a monumental disappointment.

Prohibition’s planners refused to realize how much average Americans enjoyed their drinking. Citizens resorted to making their own beer for rehab facilities by distilling dangerously impure spirits in their bathtubs, which resulted in hundreds of deaths and thousands of cases of blindness and paralysis. The continuing manufacture and selling of alcohol in clandestine bars known as speakeasies were enticed and implemented by organized crime syndicates. Because of the thriving black market for beer, police officers, prosecutors, and politicians may often be paid off. It’s no coincidence that Prohibition lasted the whole decade known as the “Road to Prohibition.” This highlights the importance of rehab facilities and the factor that without rehab facilities there is no future for addicts.

The 21st Amendment to the Constitution legalized the manufacture and selling of beer to be consumed in the public places 13 years after Restriction was repealed, prompting the federal government to enact restrictions to seize power from violent crime gangs and free up a good income source in the way.


'Rush': The Other Founding Father From Philadelphia Named Benjamin

Benjamin Rush, the medical doctor and Founding Father, took after the Renaissance-man civic participation of his mentor, Benjamin Franklin.

Charles Willson Peale/Courtesy of Crown

He is the lesser-known Founding Father from Philadelphia named Benjamin — the one whose face does not grace the $100 bill.

Benjamin Rush was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was also a doctor — arguably the most famous doctor in America — who became known as the American Hippocrates. During the Revolutionary War, Rush was alongside Gen. George Washington when he crossed the Delaware he treated battlefield casualties behind enemy lines and later, became a pioneer in the field of mental health.

He was also a bold abolitionist, an advocate for public education — for women's education, in particular — and a prolific writer.

Stephen Fried tells the story of the man who became "a footnoted founder, a second-tier signer" in his new biography Rush: Revolution, Madness & the Visionary Doctor Who Became a Founding Father.

Sorotan Wawancara

On how Rush's medical training shaped his later political views

Revolution, Madness, and the Visionary Doctor Who Became a Founding Father

Beli Buku Unggulan

Pembelian Anda membantu mendukung pemrograman NPR. Bagaimana?

Rush was a blacksmith's son he did not have a lot of money. So he was the young star of that era, and tried to make a living as a doctor, which was hard. The good thing about him trying to make a living as a doctor is he had to treat poor patients — he had to treat patients of all races. So it's not surprising that he became the Founding Father most interested in diversity issues, because he was astonished at racial prejudice he was astonished at religious prejudice. And so he really paid attention to these things pretty early on, writing a paper that was not only against slavery, but he specifically talked about being against prejudice.

On how Rush's work in Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the country, shaped his views on mental illness

It was one of the first places that people with mental illness were treated away from their homes, and sadly, they had no idea how to treat people — they warehoused them, they locked them, they chained them to the floor, they slept on straw. It was believed then that people with mental illness were impervious to cold or heat, and actually after the Revolution — when he actually started taking control of what was going on here, both has a university professor and as a staff member here at the hospital — we can see him trying to get funding for better care, trying to get people to understand that both mental illness and addiction, which at that time was mostly alcoholism, were medical problems. This was a pretty new idea. And tried to destigmatize them and tried to get people in here for treatment. And I would argue that the history of modern mental health care starts here in this building with Rush.

On Rush signing the Declaration of Independence in what is now known as Independence Hall

As a young doctor, he gave inoculations here. And several years after that, he was in the Continental Congress signing the Declaration of Independence. He considered it to be a very solemn moment, a very scary moment. They were very cognizant, at least he was, that they were signing something that was treasonous and they could be taking their life in their hands. Rush really believed in equality, so I think that informed his decision to be in favor of independence. He was on line with independence very early on, even though this was dangerous for his career here in Philadelphia. Philadelphia had the largest percentage of Loyalists because they had the most to lose if in fact there was independence.

On the fact that Benjamin Rush, who called slavery a crime, owned a slave named William Grubber

We don't know why he bought a slave. It was in the later years of the War, and he had a slave for a number of years. And he freed him before the [Pennsylvania] Abolition Society became active again after Franklin came home [from Europe]. He didn't write about it, except to write about his freedom. And when William Grubber died, Rush had him treated at Pennsylvania Hospital and paid for his funeral he wrote about their relationship a little bit. So not every story is a straight-through story. It's not my place to apologize for anything he did, but just to show this was a very complicated man who made an enormous contribution to America.

On Benjamin Rush's death in 1813, at the age of 67

The funeral of Benjamin Rush is something that almost every civic group sent people to. It was described in the newspapers as being second only to [George] Washington's burial and [Benjamin] Franklin's burial. So Rush was not only one of the last of the signers of the Declaration who was still alive, but he was the most important doctor in America. So this was a very big thing.

Franklin's [grave] is the one that's probably visited the most, but I think that Rush's grave is the one that really, it provides the most thought. I do think that you can come here [Christ Church Burial Ground, in Philadelphia] and think about mental health advocacy and advocacy for addiction. You can come here and talk about public education because Rush was really one of the first people to talk about that. You can talk about religious freedom. So, there's a lot here to think about when you sit here thinking about Benjamin Rush.

On John Adams' appraisal of his good friend Benjamin Rush after Rush's death, when he wrote:

Dr Rush was a greater and better Man than Dr Franklin: Yet Rush was always persecuted and Franklin always adored. . Rush has done infinitely more good to America than Franklin. Both had deserved a high Rank among Benefactors to their Country and Mankind but Rush by far the highest.

I would of course agree with John Adams. John Adams was upset that Rush hadn't gotten his due. And Adams watched him grow into a patriot, into an incredibly important scientist and doctor. He was very close with Rush and very sad that Rush, he felt, would not get his due.

But this isn't a scorecard here. All I would ever ask is that the two Benjamins be seen in their own importance. I think that Benjamin Franklin is seen as the most important figure in American history. He is unbelievably important. If Benjamin Rush was here, he would say, "You're going to question whether Benjamin Franklin was important?" Rush was Franklin's protégé he adored Franklin, and in Franklin's later years, Rush made sure that people paid attention to Franklin when he seemed too old and sick. He wasn't going to be a signer of the Constitution Rush insisted that the Pennsylvania delegation add him. So he was respectful to Franklin, but Franklin died in 1790, and Rush very much wanted, I think, to be the next Benjamin, and be the person who carried on the traditions of Franklin into the next century. And I think he did, as a scientist, as a teacher, as a writer. And I think Franklin would admit that.

Denise Guerra and Evie Stone produced and edited this interview for broadcast.


Benjamin Rush (1745-1813)

Benjamin Rush was born to John and Susanna Harvey Rush on December 24, 1745. The family, which included seven children, lived on a plantation in Byberry, near Philadelphia. When Benjamin was five his father died, leaving his mother to care for the large family. At age eight the young boy was sent to live with an aunt and uncle so as to receive a proper education he went on to study at the University of New Jersey (now Princeton) and received his bachelor's degree from that institution in 1760. Upon returning to Philadelphia, Rush studied medicine under Dr. John Redman from 1761 until 1766, at which time he departed for Scotland to finish his studies at the University of Edinburgh. Receiving his medical degree in June 1768, Rush traveled on to London to further his training at St. Thomas's Hospital it was in London that Rush first encountered Benjamin Franklin.

Rush returned to Philadelphia in 1769 and started practicing medicine while also serving as the professor of chemistry at the College of Philadelphia. He wrote treatises on medical procedure, politics, and abolition, helping to found the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery. His writings on the crisis brewing between the colonies and Britain brought him into associations with such leaders as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine. At the outbreak of war, Rush joined the continental army as a surgeon and physician.

In June 1776, he was appointed to the Provincial Conference and then to the Continental Congress a month later and signed the Declaration of Independence. Returning to the war effort, Rush was appointed Surgeon-General of the continental army in April 1777 he did not remain so for long, however. He was appalled by the deplorable conditions in which he found the medical service, and consequently became embroiled with George Washington and one of his old teachers, Dr. William Shippen, in accusations of poor management. When Washington and Congress sided with the older Shippen, Rush resigned his commission in protest the incident led him to express his doubts about the commander-in-chief in a letter to Patrick Henry, which found its way back to Washington, thus ending Rush's military career.

Rush returned to his practice in Philadelphia in 1778. Two years later he began to lecture at the new University of the State of Pennsylvania. He continued to write prolifically on the subject of medicine and medical practice, developing a reputation as a man of literature as well as medicine. In 1783, Rush joined the staff of the Pennsylvania Hospital and actively served until his death. While teaching at the University and serving at the Hospital, Rush furthered his republican ideas regarding universal education and health care he advocated prison reform, the abolition of slavery and capital punishment, temperance, and better treatment of mental illness. He also believed in creating a better system of schools on every level so that all children, girls as well as boys, could receive the benefits of a proper education that consisted of lower schools as well as colleges his dream included a national university. It was this idealistic view of education that prompted Rush to envision a college in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, then the edge of the frontier, as the first building block of this great system. Learning of the trustees' plan to expand the Carlisle Grammar School into an academy, Rush gained the confidence of one of them, Colonel John Montgomery, and proceeded to convince the other eight trustees that a college was the better idea. Rush succeeded in garnering support from John Dickinson, then president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania as a tribute to Dickinson's accomplishments (and donations), the college was named in honor of the great statesman. Rush served as one of the most influential trustees of the College from its founding until his death.

Through his medical practice, lectures, and various writings, Rush gained the reputation as one of the leading physicians and medical theorists in the new nation he was a pioneer in physiology and psychiatry. For better or for worse, Rush solidified this reputation through his role in the terrible yellow fever epidemic that swept Philadelphia in 1793. He remained in the city and tended to the thousands stricken with the disease, utilizing his practice of "depleting" (i.e. bleeding, purging). Although thoroughly schooled in "nosology," the principle that humors and solids controlled the health of a person, Rush firmly believed that diseases resulted from over- or under-stimulation of the nervous system, to which remedies of depletion or stimulation were to be applied accordingly. Unfortunately for Rush (and for his patients as well), depletion more often than not removed too much blood from the body, ending in death. As a consequence, his theories were condemned by his critics as dangerous and overzealous although Rush's procedures did sometimes seem to work, he had not gathered enough solid data to justify his practice, and his critics had the mortality statistics to prove their claims. Undaunted, he would continue to write and lecture passionately on his system for the rest of his life.

He had briefly reentered the realm of politics in 1787 to advocate the ratification of the federal constitution his actions led to an appointment to the ratifying convention for the state. Two years later, along with fellow Dickinson trustee James Wilson he helped to secure a less radical and more effective constitution. As a result of Rush's lifelong patriotism and commitment to the American cause, President John Adams appointed him treasurer of the United States Mint, a post he occupied from 1797 until his death. Meanwhile in 1803 he had become president of the abolition society he had helped to establish, as well as joining the Philadelphia College of Physicians.

On January 11, 1776, Rush married Julia Stockton, the eldest daughter of Richard Stockton of Princeton (and fellow signer of the Declaration). The couple had thirteen children, nine of whom would survive their father. Benjamin Rush died rather suddenly at his home on April 19, 1813 at the age of 67 and was buried at Christ's Church in Philadelphia.

Image Source: Thomas Sully's portrait of Benjamin Rush. Photograph by Carl Sander Socolow


Benjamin Rush

Wife – Julia Stockton
(1759-1848)
Daughter of Signer Richard Stockton.

Philadelphia PA (Lost in 1969)

Benjamin Rush was born December 24, 1745 near Philadelphia. His great-great-grandfather John Rush was an officer in Cromwell’s army. In 1683 at the age of 63 he became a Quaker and emigrated from England bringing his children and grandchildren to Pennsylvania. Benjamin Rush was the fourth of seven children born to John and Susanna Rush. John Rush was a farmer turned gunsmith who died when Benjamin was only six. After his fathers death his mother Susanna was the sole support of the family. She opened a grocery that was so successful that she soon opened another shop selling chinaware. At the age of 9 Benjamin was sent to Nottingham Academy in Md. run by his uncle Samuel Finley who later became president of the College of New Jersey (Now Princeton University). Rush graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1760 at the age of 15. Rush studied under Dr. John Redman in Philadelphia for six years and in 1766 he traveled to Scotland to attend the University of Edinburgh. While in Edinburgh he helped his friend Richard Stockton convince Dr. John Witherspoon to accept the presidency of the College of New Jersey. He received a degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1768 and traveled to hospitals in London and Paris.

In the summer of 1769 Dr. Benjamin Rush returned to Philadelphia were he opened a medical practice and was appointed professor of chemistry at the College (now University) of Philadelphia. He wrote the first American textbook on chemistry. In 1773 he contributed editorial essays to the papers about the patriot cause. He was active in the Sons of Liberty in Philadelphia and recommended the title “Common Sense” to his friend Thomas Paine for a pamphlet that became popular among patriots.

On January 11, 1776 Dr. Benjamin Rush married Julia Stockton the 17 year old daughter of his good friend Richard Stockton of Princeton. The minister that married them was Dr. John Witherspoon whom he had helped bring to America ten years earlier. Six months later they would all sign the Declaration of Independence.

On July 22, 1776 Rush took his seat in Congress serving Pennsylvania. He was not yet elected on July 4 when independence was declared but he did proudly sign the Declaration with the other delegates on August 2, 1776. Dr. Benjamin Rush wrote in letter to John Adams in 1811 “ The pensive and awful silence which pervaded the house when we were called up, one after another, to the table of the President of Congress to subscribe what was believed by many at that time to be our own death warrants. The silence and gloom of the morning was interrupted, I well recollect, only for a moment by Benjamin Harrison of Virginia, who said to Elbridge Gerry at the table, I shall have a great advantage over you, Mr. Gerry, when we are all hung for what we are now doing. From the size and weight of my body I shall die in a few minutes, but from the lightness of your body you will dance in the air an hour or two before you are dead. This speech procured a transient smile, but it was soon succeeded by the solemnity with which the whole business was conducted.”

Dr. Benjamin Rush was the only signer to travel with the Continental Army as a Doctor. Rush experienced first hand the real war while engaged in battle and treating the horrible wounds inflicted on the soldiers. He was with the army at Trenton on December 24, 1776 and spent time with General George Washington. Rush wrote: “I spent a night at a farmhouse near to him and the next morning passed near an hour with him in private. He appeared much depressed, and lamented the ragged and dissolving state of his army in affecting terms. I gave him assurance of the disposition of Congress to support him, and while I was talking to him, I observed him to play with his pen and ink upon several small pieces of paper. One fell upon the floor near my feet. I was struck with the inscription upon it it was ‘Victory or Death’. The next day I had reason to believe, that in my interview with Washington that he had been meditating his attack on the Hessians for I found that the countersign of his troops at Trenton was Victory or Death.”

When Dr. Benjamin Rush learned of the capture and brutal prison treatment his father-in-law Richard Stockton had received at the hands of the Loyalists and British, he was incensed. He wrote to Richard Henry Lee: “ every particle of my blood is electrified with revenge, and if justice cannot be done him in any other way, I declare I will, in defiance of the authority of Congress… drive the first rascally Tory I meet a hundred miles, barefooted, through the first deep snow that falls in our country.”

Julia Stockton Rush and other wives of Philadelphia went door to door to raise money for the Continental army, and in a matter of weeks raised a large amount of money. Gen. George Washington instructed the women to use the money for shirts. The women of Philadelphia sewed 2,200 linen shirts and personalized each one with the name of the woman who made it. Benjamin Rush paid tribute to his wife: “Let me here bear testimony to the worth of this excellent woman. She fulfilled every duty as wife, and mother with fidelity and integrity. To me she was always a sincere and honest friend had I yielded to her advice upon many occasions, I should have known less distress from various causes in my journey through life.”

In April 1777 he was appointed Surgeon General of the Continental Army and in July 1777 he was made Physician General, for which he would take no pay. He was with the army at the battles of Trenton, Princeton, and Brandywine and cared for the wounded. In 1778 Rush was critical of the administration of the Army Medical service under Dr. William Shippen. Rush felt conditions were deplorable and complained to General George Washington, who deferred to Congress. Congress ultimately upheld Shippen, and Rush resigned his appointments in disgust.

After his term in Congress he resumed the practice of medicine and was a founder of the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. Rush became president of the Philadelphia medical society, established the first free medical clinic for the poor, and continued to teach medicine at the College (now University) of Pennsylvania. Dr. Benjamin Rush had become the leading American physician of his time. When Rush began teaching medicine at the University he had a class of twenty students when he delivered his last lectures in l813, he had more than four hundred students.

He was beloved in his city, where he set an example for other doctors in caring for the poor and became world famous because of his dedication to duty during Philadelphia’s two great yellow fever epidemics that killed nearly 8,000. He himself had a severe attack of yellow fever. He was honored for his contributions to medical science by medals and presents from the King of Prussia, Queen of Italy, and Czar of Russia.

Rush was a social activist, a prominent advocate for the abolition of slavery, and advocate for education for the masses, including women, and for public clinics to treat the poor. He believed in providing treatment for the mentally ill, treating them with compassion and was known as the father of psychiatry.

In 1789 Benjamin Rush wrote in Philadelphia newspapers in favor of adopting the Federal constitution. He was then elected to the Pennsylvania convention which adopted that constitution. He was appointed treasurer of the US Mint under President John Adams and served from 1797 to 1813. In 1808, the Philadelphia Mint struck two medals in his honor. Rush helped found Dickinson College and served as a trustee. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society and was cofounder and vice president of the Philadelphia Bible Society.

Rush was responsible for bringing John Adams and Thomas Jefferson back together after their bitter election, and was always a good friend and correspondent to both. Adams characterized Rush after their first meeting as “An elegant, ingenious body, a sprightly, pretty fellow,” and “Too much of a talker to be a deep thinker, elegant, not great.” But when Rush died Thomas Jefferson wrote John Adams that “a better man than Rush could not have left us, more benevolent, more learned, of finer genius, or more honest,” to which Adams replied “he knew of no character living or dead, who has done more real good in America.” Adams wrote Rush’s widow Julia, “there is no one outside my own family whose friendship was so essential to my happiness.”

Serving the people of Philadelphia during a typhus epidemic Dr. Benjamin Rush died April 19, 1813 at the age of 68 of typhus fever. They resided at “Sydenham” now Fifteenth Street and Columbus Ave., in Philadelphia. Julia Stockton Rush died at the age of eighty-nine on July 7, 1848 and is buried with her husband in Christ Church Cemetery in Philadelphia. Benjamin and Julia had thirteen children but four died in infancy. Richard Rush, the second son, served as Attorney-General of the United States, Minister to Great Britain, Secretary of the Treasury, Minister to France and was a candidate for the vice-presidency. James Rush, the third son was a medical authority and writer, and endowed the “Ridgeway” branch of the Philadelphia library. James’ wife was Phebe Ridgeway Rush, a leader of Philadelphia society and one of the most famous women in America at the time.

List of site sources >>>


Tonton videonya: Cathie Wood WARNING - A Deflationary Crash Is Coming Not Inflation Bitcoin u0026 Ethereum Prediction (Januari 2022).