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Wonder Woman Dan Mitos Amazon yang Perkasa

Wonder Woman Dan Mitos Amazon yang Perkasa

Nama-nama Thessalia, Hippolyta, Antiope, dan bahkan Putri Diana dari Themyscira, yang lebih dikenal sebagai Wonder Woman, tidak asing lagi, meskipun hingga saat ini hanya kaum romantis yang mempercayai keberadaan mereka. Mereka adalah Amazon, pejuang wanita yang diberi keabadian mitologis oleh orang Yunani. Setiap prajurit Yunani, dari Hercules ke bawah, harus membuktikan keberaniannya dengan melawan Amazon dan muncul sebagai pemenang dari pertempuran. Itu adalah ritus peralihan. Tapi tidak ada yang benar-benar percaya bahwa mereka pernah benar-benar ada. Sampai sekarang.

Pertempuran Amazon oleh Peter Paul Rubens (1617) Galeri Web Seni

Adrienne Mayor, dalam bukunya, NS Amazon: Kehidupan dan Legenda Wanita Prajurit di Dunia Kuno , telah menarik perhatian pada penemuan arkeologi baru-baru ini yang tampaknya membuktikan, tanpa bayang-bayang keraguan, bahwa sesuatu seperti Amazon ada dan mungkin sama ganasnya dengan reputasi mereka. “ Sebagai Putri Diana dari Themyscira, Wonder Woman adalah darah biru Amazon. Dibentuk dari tanah liat oleh ibunya, Ratu Hippolyta, dan diberi kehidupan oleh nafas Aphrodite, dia adalah seorang setengah dewa. Hadiah yang dia terima dari para dewa panteon Yunani menjelaskan kekuatan superhero-nya, yang menjadi jelas ketika dia berubah menjadi Wonder Woman… Bukti yang luar biasa sekarang menunjukkan bahwa tradisi Amazon di Yunani dan masyarakat kuno lainnya sebagian berasal dari fakta sejarah.”

Amazons and Scythians, oleh Otto van Veen, (sebelum 1629) Museum Kunsthistorisches, Wina ( Area publik)

Gundukan Pemakaman Scythian

Saat menggali gundukan pemakaman Scythian , para arkeolog secara rutin menemukan bukti Kurgan—pejuang nomaden, yang berpusat pada kuda—termasuk tulang manusia yang ditemukan dari Laut Hitam hingga stepa Mongolia. Untuk bisa bertarung dari atas kuda, dibutuhkan teknologi senjata yang unik. Busur harus lebih pendek dan lebih kuat untuk menembakkan panah di atas kepala tunggangan seseorang. Busur dan anak panah seperti itu secara teratur ditemukan di gundukan kuburan. Diasumsikan bahwa pemiliknya adalah prajurit laki-laki. Tapi sekarang ilmu tes DNA telah menjadi alat biasa dalam gudang arkeolog, dan, ternyata, setidaknya sepertiga dari mayat yang ditemukan adalah para pejuang wanita.

Mengendarai Amazon dengan kostum Scythian, vas bergambar merah di loteng, c. 420 SM, Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich

Di atas kuda, prajurit wanita yang terlatih bisa sama mematikannya dengan prajurit pria, dan bahkan mungkin terbukti sedikit lebih cepat dan lebih bisa bermanuver, karena bobot yang lebih ringan yang harus dipikul kuda.


Amazon Warrior Women: Kebenaran di Balik Mitos

Tahun lalu, DC Comics Wanita perkasa meledak ke layar kami dalam film superhero epik yang menempatkan seorang wanita di garis depan untuk pertama kalinya. Dengan melakukan itu, sutradara Patty Jenkins menggali masa lalu Wonder Woman yang tersembunyi sebagai Diana (Gal Gadot), putri ratu Amazon Themiscyra - dan dengan demikian membuka dunia Amazon kuno ke publik jutaan orang.

Film ini dibuka di pulau surgawi Themiscyra, di mana Amazon dikatakan telah diturunkan oleh raja para dewa, Zeus. Tugas mereka: melindungi umat manusia dari Ares, dewa perang. Ketika pilot Perang Dunia I Steve Trevor (Chris Pine) jatuh di pulau mereka, Diana berangkat untuk menghadapi Ares – dan mulailah perjalanan transformasinya menjadi Wonder Woman.

Tapi Amazon lebih dari sekedar fantasi superhero yang memecahkan rekor. Mereka bahkan lebih dari sekedar mitos, meskipun mereka diturunkan ke status legenda selama ribuan tahun. Faktanya, ada sejarah nyata dan luar biasa di balik Amazon selama lebih dari dua ribu tahun, melintasi antara teks-teks kuno dan kemajuan ilmiah terbaru dalam arkeologi – dan itu adalah salah satu yang saya temukan dan jelajahi dalam novel sejarah terbaru saya, Untuk Yang Abadi.

Ketika saya pertama kali memutuskan untuk menulis tentang Amazon, titik referensi saya sebagai sejarawan dunia klasik adalah untuk melihat mitos Yunani kuno. Amazon dikatakan sebagai suku pejuang wanita yang tinggal jauh di timur – beberapa bahkan mengatakan di Themiscyra, dekat muara Sungai Terme modern di Turki utara, di mana kita melihat mereka di Wanita perkasa. Mereka begitu ganas dalam pertempuran sehingga mereka memotong salah satu payudara mereka untuk bertarung (demikianlah klaim orang Yunani), dan begitu ‘anti-laki-laki’ sehingga mereka berhubungan seks semata-mata untuk kesenangan, (begitulah kata beberapa orang) meninggalkan laki-laki mereka. keturunan untuk mati. Mereka sering digambarkan dalam seni Yunani, menunggang kuda, mengenakan tunik dan celana panjang bermotif, dan membawa perisai, pedang, dan kapak perang yang khas.

Untuk orang Yunani abad kelima SM, Amazon mewakili segala sesuatu yang menakutkan tentang wanita: kisah moralitas untuk istri Athena melawan bahaya keliaran bawaan wanita dan apa yang akan terjadi jika dibiarkan liar. (Jawaban yang sesuai, tentu saja – dengan senang hati – adalah bahwa wanita harus menundukkan diri mereka di bawah kendali suami Athena mereka.)

Parthenon yang megah, dibangun untuk merayakan kekayaan dan kekuatan Athena yang semakin meningkat dan selesai pada tahun 432 SM, membuat pelajaran ini menjadi jelas. Di satu bagian dari struktur Amazon ditampilkan gulat setengah telanjang dan ditundukkan oleh orang Yunani di bagian lain, wanita Athena, baik tua maupun muda, berbaris dengan tertib untuk memberi penghormatan kepada dewi kota, sementara di belakang mereka para pria naik kuda. Ini, Parthenon menyatakan, adalah bagaimana seharusnya.

Nama tiga ratu Amazon secara khusus bergema di sepanjang zaman – dan salah satunya, menurut mitos, bahkan tinggal di Athena dan membakar istana rajanya, di atas batu tempat Parthenon nantinya akan berdiri. Tidak heran jika para senimannya begitu bersemangat untuk menekankan bahaya Amazon.

Ratu Amazon pertama, Hippolyta, memiliki sabuk perang mitos yang Hercules, pahlawan Yunani, ditugaskan untuk mencuri darinya. (Beberapa sumber mengatakan bahwa raja putri Tiryns, Admete, diberi tugas ini dan menemani Hercules dalam perjalanannya – versi yang saya ikuti dalam penelusuran mitos saya.) Ada pertempuran yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang Yunani – setelah perjuangan – mengklaim sabuk perang, dan Theseus, raja Athena, menangkap Hippolyta (atau, dalam beberapa versi, saudara perempuannya Antiope) dan membawanya kembali ke Yunani bersamanya. Bertekad untuk memulihkan ratu mereka, Amazon kemudian naik ke Yunani dengan kekuatan dan menyerang kota. Kemudian, ketika orang-orang Yunani melakukan perjalanan ke timur lagi – kali ini untuk menyerang benteng Troy – itu adalah Amazon, di bawah ratu baru, Penthesilea, dalam aliansi dengan Trojans, yang berkuda untuk melawan orang-orang Yunani.

Tidak diragukan lagi bahwa mitos Yunani seputar Amazon sangat kaya – dan para peneliti untuk DC Comics Wanita perkasa tahu tentang mereka, jika nama-nama yang disebutkan di adegan pembuka (Hippolyta, Antiope) dan penggambaran kekuatan pertempuran legendaris mereka adalah sesuatu yang harus dilakukan. Tetapi penelitian baru-baru ini juga telah mengungkap inti sejarah di balik mitos dan legenda yang kaya ini, menunjukkan bahwa fantasi – baik kuno maupun modern – tentang pejuang wanita yang bertempur dan berkuda ke timur Yunani mungkin lebih benar. Bukti sejarah, arkeologi, dan artistik digabungkan untuk menunjukkan bahwa legenda Amazon mungkin berakar di padang rumput Scythia yang luas (utara Laut Hitam), di mana suku-suku nomaden Scythian pria dan wanita sama-sama bertempur di atas kuda.

Pemakaman pengembara Scythian, yang dikubur dengan kuda dan senjata mereka, selalu dianggap laki-laki. Tetapi teknik bioarkeologi baru-baru ini telah menunjukkan bahwa banyak pejuang sebenarnya adalah perempuan – dan bahwa, dalam beberapa populasi, perempuan mewakili sebanyak 37 persen penguburan Scythian. Wanita yang dikubur dengan senjata berkisar antara usia 10 dan 45 tahun, dan dikuburkan dengan segala macam perlengkapan kuda dan persenjataan, mulai dari anak panah, panah dan busur hingga tombak dan kapak perang.

Bukti menunjukkan bahwa legenda Yunani tentang penunggang kuda wanita Amazon berakar pada budaya nyata penjinak kuda nomaden, di mana penjinakan kuda dan penggunaan busur yang lebih kecil dan kompak berarti bahwa pria dan wanita dapat menunggang kuda dan bertarung. bersama. Dalam imajinasi orang Yunani, para pejuang wanita nomaden ini dibesar-besarkan dan diubah menjadi pejuang Amazon, tanpa rasa takut, tanpa ampun, dan membenci pria – didorong, tidak diragukan lagi, oleh kecemasan di sekitar wanita pada saat itu.

Jadi mungkin Amazon – atau rekan sejarah mereka – benar-benar pernah menaiki dataran dan berlatih untuk berperang. Dan disinilah perjalanan saya sebagai penulis fiksi sejarah dimulai. Saya ingin menyatukan bukti sejarah Amazon dengan mitos dan legenda mereka – menggunakan fiksi sebagai cara untuk menjembatani kesenjangan antara mitos, sastra, dan arkeologi, dan untuk mendapatkan wawasan tentang bagaimana rasanya menjadi Amazon Ratu.

Untuk Yang Abadi mengikuti Hippolyta, menggabungkan legenda yang diceritakan tentang dia - konfrontasinya dengan Hercules, penangkapannya di Athena, dan perjalanan terakhir Amazon untuk berperang melawan Troy - dengan bukti tentang wanita sejarah nyata yang mengendarai stepa. Mengikuti jejaknya, ini adalah perjalanan yang luar biasa antara fakta dan fiksi, melintasi ribuan mil dan ratusan tahun, di bawah bayang-bayang seorang ratu yang namanya telah bergema selama berabad-abad – dan yang kisah penyerangan, agensi, dan tuduhan yang kuat sama relevannya. hari ini seperti dulu.

Lahir di Brighton dan dibesarkan di Suffolk, Emily Hauser belajar Klasik di Cambridge, di mana dia diajar oleh Mary Beard. Dia kuliah di Harvard sebagai Fulbright Scholar sebelum melanjutkan ke Yale untuk menyelesaikan PhD-nya. Dia sekarang telah kembali ke Harvard sebagai Junior Fellow, dan bergabung dengan University of Exeter sebagai Dosen Klasik tahun ini. Untuk yang Terindah – buku pertama dalam trilogi Golden Apple – adalah novel debutnya dan menceritakan kembali kisah pengepungan Troy. Kedua dia, Untuk Pemenang, adalah konsep ulang yang brilian dari mitos Atalanta dan legenda Jason, para Argonaut, dan pencarian Bulu Domba Emas. Untuk Yang Abadi memulihkan legenda Hercules dan Amazon untuk mengakhiri trilogi dengan mendebarkan. Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut, kunjungi www.emilyhauser.com.


Zeus Menciptakan Manusia

Dalam kisah penciptaan Yunani klasik, penghargaan untuk menciptakan Manusia diberikan kepada Prometheus (sesuatu yang jelas tidak disukai Zeus). Dalam cerita asal mula dari Wanita perkasa komik, lima dewi membentuk jiwa wanita yang dibunuh secara tidak adil menjadi bentuk tanah liat, menciptakan Amazon - Hippolyta yang pertama dari mereka, dan ratu mereka. Dalam versi cerita yang diceritakan oleh Hippolyta kepada Diana di film, peran Zeus, Ares, Amazon dan dewa-dewa lainnya lebih dekat dengan mitos dan cerita penciptaan agama lainnya.

Pada awalnya, ada Zeus. Zeus menciptakan Manusia untuk menyembah dia dan sesama dewa, dan melihat bahwa itu baik. Mereka yang telah melihat filmnya tahu itu, meskipun Diana sebenarnya adalah anak perempuan Zeus, ia memainkan peran yang relatif kecil dalam cerita. Tapi asal baru ini (dan bantuannya kemudian ditunjukkan kepada Amazon) menetapkan Zeus sebagai Pencipta yang baik dan adil. Bagaimanapun, dia menciptakan Manusia menurut citranya sendiri, dan sebelum ciptaan ini berubah menjadi kegelapan, mereka hidup bahagia, damai, dan dengan cara yang sesuai dengan gaya seni romantis dari rangkaian tersebut.

Dalam mitos Yunani, Zeus diperlihatkan sebagai dewa yang asmara atau licik seperti dewa lainnya, tetapi secara keseluruhan masih condong ke arah yang bajik. Di DCEU, tampaknya kebajikan diperkuat (setidaknya dalam cerita yang diceritakan Hippolyta kepada putrinya). Poin yang lebih besar untuk diambil adalah bahwa sisa cerita mengikuti kisah mitos Hippolyta dengan sempurna. jadi tampaknya di DCEU, Manusia sebenarnya telah diciptakan oleh Zeus (kecuali BAHWA bagian dari cerita itu dimaksudkan sebagai awal dari kisah "sekali waktu").


Isi

Asal

Amazons of Paradise Island pertama kali dibuat oleh William Moulton Marston sebagai bagian dari kisah asal usul ciptaannya, Wonder Woman. Amazon ini adalah ras wanita super abadi yang hidup di Pulau Surga yang ajaib. Disukai oleh Aphrodite, Dewi Cinta, Amazon berkembang dengan damai selama berabad-abad, tetapi tetap jauh dari dunia Manusia. Yang termuda dan paling kuat dari Amazon, Putri Diana, meninggalkan negara pelindung persaudaraan, meninggalkan keabadiannya untuk melawan kekuatan jahat di Man's World sebagai Wonder Woman.

Pra-Krisis

Pada zaman Yunani Kuno, berabad-abad yang lalu, suku Amazon adalah negara terkemuka di dunia. Di Amazonia, wanita memerintah dan semuanya baik-baik saja. Kemudian suatu hari, Hercules, pria terkuat di dunia, disengat oleh ejekan bahwa dia tidak bisa menaklukkan wanita Amazon, memilih prajuritnya yang terkuat dan paling ganas dan mendarat di pantai Amazon.

Ratu Amazon, Hippolyte, bertemu Hercules untuk pertempuran pribadi, karena dia tahu bahwa dengan korset ajaibnya, yang diberikan kepadanya oleh Aphrodite, Dewi Cinta, dia tidak akan kalah. Hippolyte mengalahkan Hercules, tetapi dengan tipu muslihat dan tipu daya, dia berhasil mengamankan ikat pinggang ajaib Hippolyta — dan tak lama kemudian orang-orang Amazon dijadikan budak. Aphrodite, marah pada Hippolyte karena telah menyerah pada tipu muslihat manusia, tidak akan melakukan apa pun untuk membantu mereka. Akhirnya, orang-orang Amazon tidak lagi mampu menanggung kepatuhan mereka kepada manusia, dan Hippolyte memohon kepada Dewi Aphrodite lagi. Kali ini tidak sia-sia, karena dia mengalah, dan dengan bantuannya, Hippolyte mengamankan ikat pinggang ajaib dari Hercules.

Dengan korset ajaib yang dimiliki Hippolyte, tidak butuh waktu lama bagi Amazon untuk mengalahkan tuan mereka — dan mengambil dari mereka seluruh armada mereka, mereka berlayar ke pantai lain, karena itu adalah syarat Aphrodite bahwa mereka meninggalkan dunia manusia dan membangun dunia baru mereka sendiri. Aphrodite juga memutuskan bahwa mereka harus selalu memakai gelang berat yang dibuat oleh penculiknya, sebagai pengingat bahwa mereka harus selalu menjauhkan diri dari laki-laki.

Maka, setelah mengarungi lautan berhari-hari dan bermalam-malam, orang-orang Amazon menemukan Pulau Surga dan menetap di sana untuk membangun dunia baru. Dengan tanahnya yang subur, vegetasinya yang menakjubkan, dan sumber daya alam yang beragam, tidak ada kekurangan, tidak ada penyakit, tidak ada kebencian, dan tidak ada perang. Dan selama Amazon tetap berada di Paradise Island dan Hippolyte mempertahankan ikat pinggang ajaib, mereka mempertahankan kekuatan hidup yang kekal—selama mereka tidak membiarkan diri mereka ditipu lagi oleh manusia.

Tepat setelah Amazon menaklukkan Hercules dan berlayar ke pulau mereka, mereka diberi Magic Sphere oleh Athena, Dewi Kebijaksanaan. Melalui perangkat ini, Hippolyte dapat melihat peristiwa di Dunia Manusia dari masa sekarang dan masa lalu — dan terkadang bahkan meramalkan masa depan. Dengan visi masa depan dilihat dari Magic Sphere, Amazon mampu jauh melampaui penemuan peradaban buatan manusia. Tidak hanya Amazon yang lebih kuat dan lebih bijaksana, tetapi senjata mereka lebih canggih, dan mesin terbang mereka lebih cepat.

Pasca-Krisis

Pada pertengahan 1980-an terjadi alur cerita yang disebut Krisis di Infinite Earths di mana semua komik di DC Universe tidak ada lagi dan dimulai kembali dengan semua asal baru. Ketika ini terjadi dijelaskan bahwa Amazon diciptakan oleh dewi Artemis dari jiwa wanita yang telah mati di tangan pria, dan diberi tubuh baru dan lebih kuat, terbuat dari tanah liat yang diubah menjadi daging dan darah. Amazon ini, seperti versi Pra-Krisis, melarikan diri dari Heracles (nama Yunani untuk Hercules) dan anak buahnya ke sebuah pulau yang terisolasi dan dilindungi secara ajaib, yang ini disebut Themyscira setelah ibu kota yang hilang dari bekas tanah air Amazon. Di tanah baru ini, mereka diberikan kemudaan dan kecantikan abadi. Namun, beberapa Amazon memilih untuk tetap tinggal, dan, karena tidak memiliki keabadian, membentuk negara tersembunyi Bana-Mighdall.

Pasca-Flashpoint

Mengikuti perombakan sejarah DC Universe di akhir Titik nyala, sejarah Amazon kembali direvisi. Themyscira sekarang disebut Pulau Surga seperti sebelum Krisis pada Bumi Tanpa Batas. Hippolyta memiliki rambut pirang dan merupakan ibu kandung Diana, yang ayah kandungnya adalah Zeus. Hippolyta menciptakan cerita "mencetak Diana dari tanah liat" untuk melindunginya dari murka istri Zeus, Hera.


Amazon sejati: bagaimana pejuang wanita legendaris menginspirasi pejuang dan feminis

Para wanita pejuang yang melawan Hercules dan mendekati Alexander Agung adalah legenda – namun, seperti yang diungkapkan John Man, dampak artistik dan sosial dari mitos tersebut masih dapat dirasakan hingga hari ini.

Kompetisi ini sekarang ditutup

Diterbitkan: 23 Oktober 2017 pukul 12:28 malam

Orang Yunani kuno benar-benar tahu bahwa Amazon itu nyata – atau, setidaknya, bahwa mereka telah pernah. Pahlawan zaman dahulu telah bertemu dengan Amazon di kerajaan wanita bela diri, Themiscyra, di pantai selatan Laut Hitam. Amazon telah menginvasi Yunani, kemajuan mereka terhenti dalam pertempuran besar. Herodotus menceritakan bagaimana mereka ditangkap, dibawa dengan kapal Yunani dan melarikan diri ke tepi sungai Don, di mana mereka menikah dengan suku Skit.

Tidak ada yang tahu dari mana nama 'Amazon' berasal, jadi orang Yunani membuat etimologi, mengklaim itu berasal dari a-mazdos – tanpa payudara: para wanita menakutkan ini memotong payudara kanan mereka untuk menghilangkan halangan pada tali busur, demikian klaimnya. Bagaimana mungkin semua ini tidak benar?

Yah, sebagian besar - termasuk etimologi yang seharusnya - tidak. Itu cerita rakyat. Tidak ada kerajaan Amazon. Tapi ada inti kebenaran. Di padang rumput Asia bagian dalam, dari Laut Hitam hingga Cina barat, wanita Skit memiliki keterampilan yang sama dengan pria mereka: memegang busur, menunggangi dan menggembalakan hewan, berkelahi – dan sekarat karena luka-luka mereka. Jenazah mereka telah ditemukan di gundukan makam dari Krimea ke Cina barat.

Sementara itu, mitos Yunani tertanam dalam imajinasi Eropa, menemukan ekspresi dalam novel, drama dan seni. Itu diangkut ke Dunia Baru oleh orang-orang Spanyol yang, saat menjelajahi sungai besar, mendengar laporan samar-samar tentang pejuang wanita, dan menamai jalur air yang perkasa dengan nama mereka. Pada waktunya, sungai terbesar di dunia memberikan namanya ke mesin penjualan online paling dominan di dunia.

Selama berabad-abad, pejuang wanita secara massal telah dijuluki 'Amazon'. Resimen wanita seperti itu ada di Dahomey (di tempat yang sekarang disebut Benin) dan di angkatan udara Soviet, dan pejuang wanita Kurdistan memiliki reputasi yang tangguh. Artikel ini memperkenalkan beberapa 'Amazon' utama dalam mitos, seni, dan sejarah, bersama dengan kebenaran di balik legenda dan dampaknya terhadap dunia nyata.

Hippolyte: dikalahkan oleh Hercules

Semuanya dimulai dengan Hercules (atau Heracles, sebagaimana orang Yunani menyebutnya), dalam waktu mimpi yang legendaris sebelum orang Yunani belajar menulis. Untuk menebus kejahatan membunuh anak-anaknya sendiri, ceritanya, Hercules ditantang oleh Eurysthenes, raja Argos, untuk menyelesaikan 12 tugas. Salah satu pekerjaannya adalah mencuri ikat pinggang emas milik Hippolyte – ratu Amazon dan putri Ares, dewa perang – yang didambakan oleh putri raja, Admete.

Para wanita pejuang ini, konon, tinggal di sungai Thermedon (sekarang Terme), di pantai selatan Laut Hitam. Dalam legenda mereka menangkap laki-laki yang mereka gunakan sebagai pejantan, membesarkan hanya anak-anak perempuan dan membunuh laki-laki. Terlepas dari prevalensi mitos etimologi a-mazdos, sebenarnya orang Yunani pasti tahu ini omong kosong - seniman mereka selalu menggambarkan Amazon sebagai utuh.

Menurut legenda, Hercules bertemu Hippolyte, merebut ikat pinggangnya (dengan atau tanpa perlawanan - versi bervariasi), mungkin atau mungkin tidak membunuhnya, dan melarikan diri kembali ke Yunani.

Apakah ada kebenaran di balik legenda semacam itu? Tidak banyak. Bangsa Amazon adalah ancaman imajiner utama bagi kejantanan Yunani. Dengan menaklukkan Amazon (setidaknya dalam mitos), pahlawan Yunani dibuat tampak lebih heroik.

Namun, ada inti fakta. Orang Yunani pada awal milenium pertama SM telah menjelajahi pantai Laut Hitam, dan mengetahui tentang bangsa Skit yang menunggang kuda, Herodotus menggambarkan mereka pada abad kelima SM. Perempuan mereka berbagi keterampilan laki-laki: mereka adalah penunggang kuda wanita tertinggi, nyonya busur, pejuang dan korban konflik, sebagai temuan arkeologi baru-baru ini bersaksi.

Penulis memberi nama mitos Amazon yang cocok. Hippolyte, misalnya, berasal dari bahasa Yunani untuk 'melepaskan kuda' – petunjuk tentang kebenaran yang tersembunyi di balik lapisan legenda.

Thalestris: Scythian yang haus seks

Apakah ada bukti bahwa orang Yunani benar-benar bertemu dengan 'Amazon'? Satu cerita tentang Alexander Agung menunjukkan bahwa mereka melakukannya.

Pada 330 SM, pejuang Makedonia yang ambisius telah menaklukkan Persia dan maju ke timur di sepanjang pantai Laut Kaspia (sekarang Iran). Dalam versi cerita abad pertama SM, seorang ratu Amazon bernama Thalestris berbaris keluar dari tanah airnya dan menuntut untuk bertemu dengan Alexander yang agung. Dihadiri oleh 300 wanita, dia membuat permintaan yang luar biasa: dia ingin "berbagi anak dengan raja, karena dia layak mendapatkan dari ahli warisnya ke kerajaannya". Alexander - menurut potret pena Plutarch - cukup kecil, tidak atletis dan tidak terlalu tertarik pada seks. Tapi Thalestris bertahan – dan menang. “Tiga belas hari dihabiskan untuk memuaskan keinginannya. Kemudian dia pergi ke kerajaannya,” tidak pernah terdengar lagi.

Bentuk awal cerita ini ditulis oleh salah satu pembantu Alexander, Onesicritus, sebagai saksi mata. Jadi mungkinkah ada kebenaran di dalamnya? Tidak banyak. Untuk satu hal, lokasi episode yang diklaim di Kaspia adalah 1.500 km dari pangkalan Laut Hitam legendaris Amazon untuk membuat pertemuan itu, Amazon harus berangkat jauh sebelum Alexander mencapai Kaspia. Selain itu, sumber utama, Onesicritus, adalah seorang promotor diri terkenal yang memiliki alasan bagus untuk menceritakan kisah yang menyanjung bosnya.

Jika ada kebenaran dari cerita itu, bisa jadi ini: Alexander didekati oleh sekelompok Scythians yang termasuk wanita, salah satunya adalah pemimpin mereka. Orang Yunani 'tahu' dari cerita kuno bahwa Amazon itu nyata, jadi secara alami melihat orang Skit sebagai Amazon. Tidak ada bahasa umum. 'Amazon' tidak bermusuhan. Orang-orang Yunani itu ramah. 'Ratu' Amazon menghabiskan waktu di tenda Alexander. Kelompok itu kemudian menghilang kembali ke jantung Asia bagian dalam, meninggalkan jalan terbuka untuk penciptaan kisah dramatis yang memberikan nama Yunani untuk ratu Scythian yang haus seks.

Ratu Califia: menamai Dunia Baru

Kepercayaan pada Amazon bertahan hingga Abad Pertengahan, dan mereka tetap menjadi topik favorit di Eropa abad pertengahan – dengan konsekuensi yang meluas ke seluruh belahan bumi hingga saat ini.

Sekitar tahun 1500, seorang Spanyol bernama Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo menulis atau mengadaptasi serangkaian novel tentang Amadís, seorang ksatria bandel dari negeri dongeng Gaula (tidak berhubungan dengan Gaul atau Wales). Buku kelima dari Amadís de Gaula seri, Eksploitasi Esplandián, adalah tentang putra Amadís. Yang terakhir menjadi terlibat dengan ras wanita pejuang Amazon dan ratu mereka Califia (atau Calafia atau Califre - ejaan bervariasi). Namanya mungkin berasal dari kalif, Spanyol baru-baru ini ditaklukkan oleh orang-orang Kristen setelah pemerintahan Islam yang panjang.

Dalam cerita, Califia adalah seorang pejuang yang tangguh, dengan 500 griffin yang diberi makan daging manusia. Dia tinggal di alam yang disebut California atau Califerne, sebuah negara pulau di dekat tanah yang baru ditemukan oleh Christopher Columbus. Sejak Columbus pada awalnya percaya bahwa dia telah mendarat di Hindia, dalam kisah-kisah Amad, California juga terletak di dekat Konstantinopel, atau – dalam geografi mitos Montalvo yang sepenuhnya – “di sebelah kanan Hindia”.

Buku-buku Amadí, khususnya Spanyol, adalah buku terlaris, diikuti oleh banyak sekuel oleh penulis lain dalam bahasa Spanyol, Italia, Jerman, Prancis, dan Inggris. Itu adalah mode yang mengilhami Cervantes Don Quixote, sebuah pastiche dari kesalahan ksatria yang sombong dari Rodríguez de Montalvo.

Pada awal abad ke-16 cerita-cerita ini dibawa ke Amerika sebagai bagasi intelektual oleh conquistador Spanyol, yang percaya fiksi didasarkan pada kebenaran kuno. Di suatu tempat, tepat di balik cakrawala, orang-orang Spanyol mengira mereka akan menemukan sebuah pulau Amazon, “kaya akan mutiara dan emas”, seperti yang ditulis Hernán Cortés kepada Charles V dari Spanyol. Jadi ketika, pada tahun 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo berlayar ke pantai barat Amerika Utara dan memetakan semenanjung yang menonjol, dia percaya itu adalah wilayah pulau Ratu Califia dan menamakannya California – sekarang semenanjung Baja California di Meksiko.

Pria emas (wanita) dari Kazakhstan

Temuan arkeologis telah menimbulkan pertanyaan menarik tentang status wanita Scythian, kemungkinan inspirasi untuk 'Amazon' orang Yunani.

Pada musim panas 1969, di dekat sebuah danau kecil di sebelah timur Almaty, kota terbesar di Kazakhstan, seorang petani melihat sesuatu yang berkilauan di tanah yang baru dibajak di dekat gundukan pemakaman setinggi 6 meter: sepotong kecil emas bermotif. Arkeolog Soviet terkenal Kemal Akishev datang untuk menyelidiki dan, menggali gundukan kuburan, menemukan bahwa itu berisi kerangka kecil yang dikelilingi oleh harta karun.

Pemakaman, yang dikenal sebagai Issyk kurgan dan mungkin berasal dari abad kelima SM, adalah Saka – nama Kazakh untuk budaya Scythian yang luas. Itu termasuk jaket yang dihiasi dengan 2.400 plakat emas, ikat pinggang dengan 13 kepala rusa emas, hiasan leher emas, pedang timbul, anting-anting, manik-manik, dan hiasan kepala yang menjulang tinggi. Tengkorak itu rusak terlalu parah untuk ditentukan jenis kelaminnya, tetapi Akishev memasang rekonstruksi dengan celana kulit dan menampilkannya sebagai 'Manusia Emas'. Direproduksi dalam poster, kartu pos, dan buku, 'pria' yang telah lama mati ini menjadi simbol negara ketika Kazakhstan muncul setelah runtuhnya Uni Soviet.

Namun, Jeannine Davis-Kimball, seorang arkeolog Amerika yang bekerja dengan Akishev pada awal 1970-an, mulai meragukan kejantanan pria tersebut. Hiasan kepala itu mirip dengan yang lain dari penguburan wanita Saka-Scythian, dan juga dengan hiasan kepala formal yang dikenakan oleh wanita Mongolia saat ini. Banyak wanita ditemukan terkubur dengan senjata di tempat lain. Dan tinggi kerangka itu menunjukkan bahwa itu adalah perempuan. Davis-Kimball menjadi yakin bahwa sisa-sisa itu sebenarnya adalah 'Wanita Emas' - "putri prajurit berpangkat tinggi", seperti yang dia tulis di Arkeologi majalah pada tahun 1997.

Siapa yang benar? Kita tidak akan pernah tahu. Sekarang mungkin untuk menganalisis tulang untuk menentukan jenis kelaminnya – tetapi, secara misterius, tulang-tulang itu telah lenyap. Setelah hampir 50 tahun, akan sulit bagi orang Kazakh untuk melihat simbol nasional mereka berubah dari laki-laki menjadi perempuan. Kemungkinannya adalah 'dia' akan terus direpresentasikan sebagai pemuda berdada rata dan bercelana panjang.

Gadis Es Siberia

Pada tahun 1993, arkeolog Rusia Natalia Polosmak sedang bekerja di sebuah gundukan pemakaman di Dataran Tinggi Ukok di Republik Altai semi-otonom di Siberia selatan, dekat perbatasan Cina, ketika dia membuat penemuan lain yang menambah pengetahuan tentang wanita Skit. Saat ini, ini adalah tanah yang terpencil dan keras, tetapi 2.500 tahun yang lalu, itu adalah padang rumput yang bagus bagi orang Skit semi-nomaden dari budaya Pazyryk Zaman Besi.

Penemuan-penemuan baik telah dilakukan di lokasi itu selama dua tahun sebelumnya, dan pada bulan Mei, saat musim semi mencairkan tanah, Polosmak dan timnya menemukan tali kekang beku, bagian pelana, enam kuda dan, akhirnya, peti mati kayu larch. Di dalamnya ada balok es, tercipta saat air bocor dan membeku. Setelah berhari-hari dengan hati-hati mencairkan es dengan air panas, kulit muncul, ditato dengan desain seperti griffin. Tubuh itu perlahan-lahan muncul, dibalsem dengan campuran herbal, rumput dan wol, bersama dengan hiasan kepala tinggi, mengungkapkan bahwa tubuh itu adalah seorang wanita.

Mengenakan jubah bulu dan rok wol, “dia tinggi – sekitar 5 kaki 6 inci [sekitar 170 cm],” tulis Polosmak dalam sebuah Nasional geografis artikel. "Tidak diragukan lagi dia adalah penunggang yang baik, dan kuda-kuda di kuburannya adalah miliknya sendiri," tegas sang arkeolog. Tato yang indah – gambar hewan yang terdistorsi dan tercampur dalam gaya khas desain Scythian – sejak itu telah direproduksi secara luas.

Mumi tersebut kemudian dikenal sebagai 'Ice Maiden' atau 'Putri Ukok'. Dia dibawa ke Novosibirsk untuk studi lebih lanjut, dan kemudian tur internasional. Tur itu dirundung kontroversi. Orang-orang Altai marah: dia nenek moyang kita, kata mereka, dan memindahkannya adalah pelanggaran terhadap tanah. Sungguh sampah, jawab para akademisi: tidak ada hubungan antara Scythians kuno dan Altaian modern.

Dalam pertempuran antara sains dan emosi, emosi menang. Dataran Tinggi Ukok tertutup bagi para arkeolog, dan 'Gadis Es' beristirahat dalam kedamaian ber-AC di sebuah museum di ibukota Republik Altai, Gorno-Altaysk.

Marina Raskova: 'penyihir malam' Rusia

Meskipun kerajaan Amazon hanyalah legenda belaka, nama tersebut telah diterapkan pada beberapa kelompok petarung yang semuanya perempuan. Di antara mereka adalah resimen pilot pembom wanita Soviet yang bertempur dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, yang paling terkenal adalah pendiri mereka, Marina Raskova.

Pada 1930-an, Uni Soviet pulih dari perang, revolusi, dan kelaparan selama bertahun-tahun. Tetapi bagi perempuan, revolusi 1917 telah membawa peluang – dalam penerbangan, misalnya, dengan pemerintah baru melihat ini sebagai peluang untuk menyatukan dan membela bangsa yang luas ini. Dan pada tahun 1933 Marina Raskova, yang baru berusia 21 tahun, menjadi navigator Soviet wanita pertama. Tampan, cerdas, dan berkemauan keras, dia adalah anak poster yang ideal untuk propaganda Soviet.

Pada bulan September 1938, ia menjabat sebagai navigator pada penerbangan rekor dunia non-stop yang banyak dipublikasikan dari Moskow ke Timur Jauh. Pada akhir perjalanan 3.700 mil, pesawat kehabisan bahan bakar dan mendarat darurat di hutan Siberia. Rastova diselamatkan sebelum kecelakaan dan, dalam kisah epik tentang ketahanan, bertahan selama lebih dari seminggu tanpa air dan hampir tanpa makanan. . Akhirnya, dia menemukan pesawat yang rusak dan, bersama dengan dua awak wanitanya, berjalan ke tempat yang aman, untuk mendapat pujian pribadi dari Stalin.

Tiga tahun kemudian, Jerman menginvasi Uni Soviet. Raskova, dengan menggunakan kontak tingkat tinggi, membentuk unit sukarelawan yang terdiri dari sekitar 400 penerbang wanita di tiga resimen: pejuang, pembom berat, dan pembom malam. Berbasis di Engels, 700 km tenggara Moskow, mereka berlatih di bawah Raskova yang mereka cintai dan, pada awal Juni 1942, mulai beraksi.

Resimen tempur dan pembom berat termasuk staf darat laki-laki, tetapi pengebom malam hanya dikelola oleh wanita. Dalam biplan kokpit terbuka yang tipis, mereka terbang rendah dari kegelapan, terkadang meluncur dalam kesunyian seperti hantu, untuk menjatuhkan bom mereka pada pasokan Jerman. Terbang hingga 100 misi per malam masing-masing - sekitar 24.000 di antaranya dalam tiga tahun operasi mereka - mereka terbukti sangat efektif sehingga Jerman menjuluki mereka Nachthexen: 'penyihir malam'.

Raskova meninggal pada Januari 1943 ketika, mencoba terbang di bawah kabut, dia menabrak tepi sungai Volga. Dia diberi pemakaman kenegaraan pertama perang, dan seluruh bangsa berduka.

Wonder Woman: pahlawan super feminis

This year, Hollywood has remade the myth in a new film with the tagline: “Before she was Wonder Woman, she was Diana, Princess of the Amazons.” The link between the two legends makes a convoluted story, its origins stretching back a century to the struggle for women’s rights.

In the years before the First World War, Elizabeth Holloway, a so-called ‘New Woman’ at the radical Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, began a relationship with William Moulton Marston – clever, handsome, ambitious – who was researching psychology at Harvard. They married in 1915, and their lives soon became intertwined with many others, all linked by radical interests pursued in secret: votes for women, contraception, lesbianism, experimental psychology, bondage, sexual liberation.

The 1930s saw the birth of a new phenomenon: superhero comic books – the first starring Superman appeared in 1938. They sold by the million, but some educationalists deplored them. Publisher Max Gaines approached Marston for advice. Marston, inspired and influenced by Holloway, suggested that the problem lay with the superheroes’ “bloodcurdling masculinity”. The obvious solution was to create “a feminist character with all the strength of a Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman”. Men, said Marston, love to submit to a woman stronger than themselves.

Wonder Woman made her debut in All Star Comics in December 1941. Introduced with a semi-Greek backstory as the Amazonian princess of Paradise Island (later Themiscyra), numerous elements of Wonder Woman’s tale were derived from Moulton’s past – a mistress’s love of Greek, the Eden-like perfection of an all-female society, a love of secrecy, a friend’s habit of wearing protective armbands.

In the first episode, Wonder Woman finds an American pilot crashed on Paradise Island and takes him back to the United States to help in the war effort and save democracy. She became a hit as a comic- book superhero and, more recently, as a feminist icon, in a 1970s TV series, and now on film.

John Man writes on Inner Asia. Buku-bukunya antara lain Saladin: The Life, the Legend and the Islamic Empire (Bantam, 2015)


Zeus' origins and early history mostly conform to the way they are presented in classical mythology. He is a child of the Titans Cronus and Rhea and leader of the twelve Olympian Gods. During a war between the Titans and Olympians, Zeus slays his father and assumes his place as King of the Gods, ruling from Mount Olympus with his sister-wife Hera. He is the father of numerous gods and heroes, the most famous being Hercules.

In the DC Universe, the machinations of the alien dark and demon god Darkseid when he spreads tales of the Roman Gods cause the Olympians to split into multiple aspects, with the Roman gods existing for a time as separate entities. Zeus' counterpart Jupiter rules his own Olympus in a separate dimension following this. The two pantheons are merged into single entities again centuries later.

In present day, Zeus has been a benefactor of the Amazons, the last remaining people that still worship the Olympians. However, his patriarchal attitudes, disregard for mortals, and unreasonable demands have sometimes led to conflict with his followers, particularly their champion Wonder Woman.

After Wonder Woman's defeat of Ares, which caused the latter to go into self-exile, Zeus becomes interested in Diana and wants her virginity, offering to make her a goddess. Diana becomes the first woman ever to refuse his advances while professing love for him as god and father. Enraged at being rejected, Zeus threatens her, but is summoned back to Olympus by Hera at the urging at the Goddesses who created the Amazons and are incensed themselves at Zeus for trying to make Themyscira his personal brothel. As punishment, Zeus demands that Diana undertake the Challenge of the Gods, on which she defeats the evils that have been trapped under Paradise Island, including a Hecatonshire and the Lernaean Hydra. She frees Heracles, who had been turned to stone and was supporting the Island. [1]

During a War of the Gods, Zeus leads the Olympians in a conflict with their Roman counterparts and other deities, until mortal heroes intervene to end the war. After Darkseid destroys the glory of Olympus, [2] Zeus convinces the other gods to abandon both it and Earth, and only Hermes refuses. The gods later return to Olympus but have occasionally been forced to defend or relocate it.

As in classical myth, Zeus frequently cheats on his wife Hera and couples with mortals to produce demi-god offspring. Zeus has been revealed as the father of Wonder Girl (Cassie Sandsmark) and shares a complicated relationship with his daughter, who resents his absence from most of her life.

Zeus is briefly deposed as ruler of Olympus during a coup staged by his daughter Athena with help from Ares. In the wake of this conflict, Athena becomes Queen of the Gods and Ares is appointed Lord of the Underworld. Shortly after this, the gods enter their second exile, following the Amazons into another dimension after the events of the Infinite Crisis. Their return to the Earth-realm is brought about by Darkseid, who captures the Olympians and tampers with their memories, seeking the secrets of their power. Di dalam Countdown to Final Crisis Darkseid's New Gods pose as Olympians and manipulate their followers. Once freed from Darkseid, the old Olympian order is restored. Athena seemingly perishes from her sustained injuries and Zeus once again becomes King of the Gods, giving Mary Marvel her powers back after she frees the Gods from a chamber on Apokolips.

Zeus' manipulations of his followers finally come to a head with the creation of the Gargareans, a race of warriors intended as male counterparts of the Amazons. Zeus murders the Hawaiian god Kāne Milohai, a patron of Wonder Woman, and uses his heart to resurrect Achilles Warkiller, whom he appoints as leader of the Gargareans. Zeus also instates Achilles as the new ruler of Themyscira. When Wonder Woman learns of this and of the murder of Kāne, she becomes enraged and physically assaults Zeus. This blasphemy shocks her mother Hippolyta and leads Diana to enter self-exile, forsaking her former

In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline, Wonder Woman's origin is revised, with her now being the biological daughter of Zeus. Zeus and Hippolyta engaged in combat, and their fight ended with the couple having sex, and thus Diana was conceived. This encounter was hidden from Diana, who was raised to believe that she was born out of clay, in order to protect Diana from Hera (Zeus' wife). [3] Lennox (another illegitimate offspring of Zeus) commented that Zeus has been "scarpered off the immortal coil", hinting that he has apparently died. [4] It is revealed that Zeus was reborn as a baby by his daughter Athena (much as Zeus had given birth to her from his head) who had been plunged into the fictitious personality and matching body of a woman named Zola who believed Zeke to be her youngest son by Zeus. Fulfilling the prophecy involving Zeus's last born son, Zeke is revealed to be the king of the gods himself, and the spell on Athena ends. Wonder Woman pleads with Athena, however, to vacate this form she has created so Wonder Woman can keep her friend Zola and mother to the new baby Zeus, who could be a better king of the gods with Zola as the mother he never really had before in his life. [5]

Depending on the writer, Zeus' powers require either direct or indirect worship to sustain them. Without this worship his powers may fade over time allowing other gods to equal or surpass him.

In most stories, Zeus is one of or the most powerful Olympian god. He has vast supernatural powers with a focus on weather control, but can accomplish nearly anything including shapeshifting, resurrecting the dead, and creating new life.

Televisi Sunting

  • In the long-running animated series Super Friends, Wonder Woman says either "Great Zeus" or "Great Hera" as an interjection when she and other superheroes are in difficult situations.
  • Zeus appears in the Challenge of the Super Friends episode "Battle of the Gods", voiced by Bob Holt. When Hera gets jealously angered at Aphrodite's praise for the Super Friends, she and Aphrodite bicker over the matter. Outraged by such a disturbance, Zeus decides to settle this dispute by having the Super Friends partake in different trials where Hera hopes that none of them will succeed in. The trials that Zeus puts the Super Friends through involve having Superman find and defeat the Minotaur, having Batman and Robin solve the Riddle of the Sphinx, having Wonder Woman retrieve the necklace of Medusa, and having Aquaman retrieve the Golden Fleece.

Edit Film

DC Extended Universe Edit

Diana Prince / Wonder Woman, portrayed by Gal Gadot, is the biological daughter of Zeus in the shared film universe.


It is no longer possible to deny the reality behind the myths of Amazons – Adrienne Mayor

"There have always been stories of Amazons and Amazon-like women sometimes they have circulated hidden under the surface and other times, like today, they break through into popular culture," Adrienne Mayor, scholar at Stanford University and author of The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, tells BBC Culture. "It is no longer possible to deny the reality behind the myths of Amazons."

The legendary warrior women – depicted here on an ancient frieze battling the Greeks – became well-known through Greek mythology (Credit: Getty Images)

While the story of a race of warrior women first appeared in Greek mythology, excavations across the north and east of the Black Sea region have revealed that warrior women like the Amazons existed in real life. In December 2019, the graves of four female warriors from the 4th Century BC Sarmatian region were found in the village of Devitsa, in what is now Western Russia. The Sarmatians were a people of Iranian heritage, with men and women skilled in horsemanship and battle. Excavations within the modern borders of Iran have revealed the existence of female warriors. In the northwestern Iranian city of Tabriz, 109 warrior graves were unearthed. Archaeologist Alireza Hejebri-Nobari confirmed in a 2004 interview that the DNA found in one belonged to a woman. DNA testing was due to take place on other warrior graves, 38 of which are still intact, but according to Mayor's contacts in Iran, that DNA research was halted in August 2020 due to a lack of resources.

The great rivalries of the ancient Greeks and Persians are well documented in Greek art, history and mythology, so much so that historians of Ancient Persia rely on the Greek interpretation of the region to unlock its history. Experts have identified depictions of the women in battle with Greek men on vases and other ceramics as dressed in Persian-style clothing: the Kandys cloak, the Anaxyrides trousers, the Persikay shoes. By the 470s, the Greeks began to refer to portrayals of the Persians as the Amazons, turning their real-life adversaries into mythological folklore. Even the word "Amazon", meaning "warrior", is likely rooted in the Iranian language.

Scythian warriors joined forces with the Amazons their descendants were the Sarmatians (Credit: Alamy)

According to Herodotus, a 5th-Century Greek writer and geographer often credited with being the first historian, the Amazons maintained an idyllic all-female existence in modern-day Turkey. They pillaged the Persian Empire and procreated with neighbouring tribes, keeping the baby girls to raise as the next generation of warriors. They would meet their ultimate fate at an encounter with the Greeks in the battle of Thermodon. Sent out to sea, The Amazons eventually entered Scythia near the Black Sea. The Amazons and Scythians, slated to fight one another, would instead join forces, whose descendants are the Sarmatians. Both the Scythians and Sarmatians are connected to modern-day Iran.

Real Wonder Women

Real-life warrior women existed far beyond the Scythians and Sarmatians, however. "Many ancient cultures besides Greece told exhilarating stories of warrior women – such tales are found in Persia, Egypt, Rome, Caucasus, Central Asia, Mongolia, India, and China," explains Mayor, who also runs a Facebook group, Amazons Ancient and Modern, for fellow scholars and enthusiasts. And history reveals countless examples of real-life female warriors, like Cynane, half-sister to Alexander the Great, who came from a tradition of warrior women and was taught the same military skills as the young Alexander. Pantea Arteshbod, a female Persian commander during the reign of Cyrus the Great, was integral to maintaining law and order after Cyrus's Neo-Babylonian conquest. The Arab queen Zenobia, of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria, rebelled against Rome to conquer the eastern third of the Roman Empire. And Joan of Arc, the most famous warrior woman in European history, in turn inspired others across Europe: Spain's Isabella of Castile's granddaughter, Mary Tudor of England and a warrior in her own right, is said to have kept a chronicle of Joan's life on her bookshelf.


Princess of the Amazons

In the movie, we meet Diana when she is eight, the only child on the island of Themyscira. Diana leads something of a charmed life, as her mother, Hippolyta (Connie Neilsen) decrees she is not to be trained as an Amazon warrior.

That changes when Hippolyta's sister, General Antiope (Robin Wright), sees potential in Diana, and decides that best way to keep her niece safe, is for Diana to be a fully-trained warrior, capable of protecting herself. Antiope begins training Diana and secret, and makes a startling discovery: the girl is more powerful than any mere Amazon - a power that even Diana doesn't realize is there.

Eventually, Hippolyta accepts what Antiope has done, and decrees that if Diana is going to be a warrior, then "Let her be unconquerable."


Isi

Origin of the name Edit

The origin of the word is uncertain. [17] It may be derived from an Iranian ethnonym *ha-mazan- 'warriors', a word attested indirectly through a derivation, a denominal verb in Hesychius of Alexandria's gloss "ἁμαζακάραν· πολεμεῖν. Πέρσαι" ("hamazakaran: 'to make war' in Persian"), where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- 'make'. [17]

It may alternatively be a Greek word descended from *ṇ-mṇ-gw-jon-es 'manless, without husbands' (alpha privative combined with a derivation from *man- cognate with Proto-Balto-Slavic *mangjá-, found in Czech muž) has been proposed, an explanation deemed "unlikely" by Hjalmar Frisk. A further explanation proposes Iranian *ama-janah 'virility-killing' as source. [18]

Among the ancient Greeks, the term Amazon was given a folk etymology as originating from (ἀμαζός 'breastless'), connected with an etiological tradition once claimed by Marcus Justinus who alleged that Amazons had their right breast cut off or burnt out. [19] There is no indication of such a practice in ancient works of art, [20] in which the Amazons are always represented with both breasts, although one is frequently covered. [21] According to Philostratus Amazon babies were just not fed with the right breast. [22] Author Adrienne Mayor suggests that the false etymology led to the myth. [20] [23]

Alternative terms Edit

Herodotus used the terms Androktones ( Ἀνδροκτόνες ) 'killers/slayers of men' and Androleteirai ( Ἀνδρολέτειραι ) 'destroyers of men, murderesses'. Amazons are called Antianeirai ( Ἀντιάνειραι ) 'equivalent to men' and Aeschylus used Styganor ( Στυγάνωρ ) 'those who loathe all men'. [15]

Dalam karyanya Prometheus Bound dan masuk Para Pemohon, Aeschylus called the Amazons ". τὰς ἀνάνδρους κρεοβόρους τ᾽ Ἀμαζόνας" 'the unwed, flesh-devouring Amazons'. In the Hippolytus tragedy, Phaedra calls Hippolytus, 'the son of the horse-loving Amazon' ( . τῆς φιλίππου παῖς Ἀμαζόνος βοᾷ Ἱππόλυτος. ). In his Dionysiaca, Nonnus calls the Amazons of Dionysus Androphonus ( Ἀνδροφόνους ) 'men slaying'. [24] [25] Herodotus stated that in the Scythian language, the Amazons were called Oiorpata, which he explained as being from oior 'man' and pata 'to slay'.

The ancient Greeks never had any doubts that the Amazons were, or had been, real. Not the only people enchanted by warlike women of nomadic cultures, such exciting tales also come from ancient Egypt, Persia, India and China. Greek heroes of old had encounters with the queens of their martial society and fought them. However, their original home was not exactly known, thought to be in the obscure lands beyond the civilized world. The Amazons existed outside the range of normal human experience. [26] As a result, for centuries scholars believed the Amazons to be purely imaginary, although there were various proposals for a historical nucleus of the Amazons in Greek historiography. Some authors preferred comparisons to cultures of Asia Minor or even Minoan Crete. The most obvious historical candidates are Lycia and Scythia & Sarmatia in line with the account by Herodotus. In his Histories (5th century BC) Herodotus claims that the Sauromatae (predecessors of the Sarmatians), who ruled the lands between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, arose from a union of Scythians and Amazons. [27]

Herodotus also observed rather unusual customs among the Lycians of south-west Asia Minor. The Lycians obviously followed matrilineal rules of descent, virtue and status. They named themselves along their maternal family line and a child's status was determined by the mother's reputation. This remarkably high esteem of women and legal regulations based on maternal lines, still in effect in the 5th century BC in the Lycian regions that Herodotus had traveled to, lent him the idea that these people were descendants of the mythical Amazons. [28]

Modern historiography no longer relies exclusively on textual and artistic material, but also on the vast archaeological evidence of over a thousand nomad graves from steppe territories from the Black Sea all the way to Mongolia. Spectacular discoveries of battle-scarred female skeletons buried with their weapons (bows and arrows, quivers and spears) prove that women warriors were not merely figments of imagination, but the product of the Scythian/Sarmatian horse-centered lifestyle. These women turned out to be able to fight, hunt, ride and utilize a bow and arrows just like the men. [29] [30]

According to myth, Otrera, the first Amazon queen, is the offspring of a romance between Ares the god of war and the nymph Harmonia of the Akmonian Wood, and as such a demigod. [31] [32] [33]

Early records refer to two events in which Amazons appeared prior to the Trojan War (before 1250 BC). Within the epic context, Bellerophon, Greek hero and grandfather of the brothers and Trojan War veterans Glaukos and Sarpedon, faced Amazons during his stay in Lycia, when King Iobates sent Bellerophon to fight the Amazons, hoping they would kill him, yet Bellerophon slew them all. The youthful King Priam of Troy fought on the side of the Phrygians, who were attacked by Amazons at the Sangarios River. [34]

Amazons in the Trojan War Edit

There are Amazon characters in Homer's Trojan War epic poem, the Iliad, one of the oldest surviving texts in Europe (around 8th century BC). The now lost epic Aethiopis (probably by Arctinus of Miletus) (6th century BC) which, like the Iliad and several other epics, is one of the works that in combination form the Trojan War Epic Cycle. In one of the few references to the text an Amazon force under queen Penthesilea, who was of Thracian birth, came to join the ranks of the Trojans after Hector's death and initially put the Greeks under serious pressure. Only after the greatest effort and the help of the reinvigorated hero Achilles, the Greeks eventually triumphed. Penthesilea died fighting the mighty Achilles in single combat. [35] Homer himself deemed the Amazon myths to be common knowledge all over Greece, which suggests, that they had already been known for some time before him. He was also convinced, that the Amazons lived not at its fringes, but somewhere in or around Lycia in Asia Minor - a place well within the Greek world. [ kutipan diperlukan ]

Troy is mentioned in the Iliad as the place of Myrine's death. [36] [37] Later identified as an Amazon queen, according to Diodorus (1st century BC), the Amazons under her rule, invaded the territories of the Atlantians, defeated the army of the Atlantian city of Cerne and razed the city to the ground. [38] [21]

In Scythia Edit

The Poet Bacchylides (6th century BC) and the historian Herodotus (5th century BC) located the Amazon homeland in Pontus at the southern shores of the Black Sea, and the capital Themiscyra at the banks of the Thermodon (modern Terme river), by the modern city of Terme. Herodotus also explains how it came to be, that some Amazons would eventually be living in Scythia. A Greek force, that after it had defeated the Amazons in battle at the Thermodon river, sailed home. The fleet included three ships, that were crowded with Amazon prisoners. Once out at sea the Amazon prisoners overwhelmed and killed the small crews of the prisoner ships and, despite not having even basic navigation skills, managed to escape and safely embark at the Scythian shore. As soon as the Amazons had caught enough horses, they easily asserted themselves in the steppe in between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea and, according to Herodotus, would eventually assimilate with the Scythians, whose descendants were the Sauromatae, the predecessors of the Sarmatians. [39] [2]

Amazon homeland Edit

Strabo (1st century BC) visits and confirms the original homeland of the Amazons on the plains by the Thermodon river. However, long gone and not seen again during his lifetime, the Amazons had allegedly retreated into the mountains. Strabo, however, added that other authors, among them Metrodorus of Scepsis and Hypsicrates claim that after abandoning Themiscyra, the Amazons had chosen to resettle beyond the borders of the Gargareans, an all-male tribe native to the northern foothills of the Ceraunian Mountains. The Amazons and Gargareans had for many generations met in secrecy once a year during two months in spring, in order to produce children. These encounters would take place in accordance with ancient tribal customs and collective offers of sacrifices. All females were retained by the Amazons themselves, and males were returned to the Gargareans. [40] 5th century BC poet Magnes sings of the bravery of the Lydians in a cavalry-battle against the Amazons. [41] [42] [43]

Hercules myth Edit

Hippolyte, an Amazon queen died by the hand of Hercules, who had set out for her in order to obtain the queen's magic belt in a task he was to accomplish as one of the Labours of Hercules. Although neither side had intended to resort to lethal combat, a misunderstanding led to the fight. In the course of this, Heracles killed the queen and several other Amazons. In awe of the strong hero, the Amazons eventually handed the belt to Heracles. In another version, Heracles does not kill the queen, but exchanges her kidnapped sister Melanippe for the belt. [44] [17] [45] [43]

Theseus myth Edit

Queen Hippolyte is abducted by Theseus, who takes her to Athens, makes her his wife and she bears him a son - Hippolytus. In other versions, the kidnapped Amazon is called Antiope, the sister of Hippolyte. In revenge, the Amazons invaded Greece, plundered some cities along the coast of Attica, and besieged and occupied Athens. Hippolyte, who fought on the side of Athens and according to another account with the Amazons was killed during the final battle along with all of the Amazons. [45] [46]

Amazons and Dionysus Edit

According to Plutarch, the god Dionysus and his companions fought Amazons at Ephesus. The Amazons fled to Samos and Dionysus pursued them and killed a great number of them at a site since called Panaema (blood-soaked field). [47] The Christian author Eusebius writes that during the reign of Oxyntes, one of the mythical kings of Athens, the Amazons burned down the temple at Ephesus. [48]

In another myth Dionysus unites with the Amazons to fight against Cronus and the Titans. Polyaenus writes that after Dionysus has subdued the Indians, he allies with them and the Amazons and takes them into his service, who serve him in his campaign against the Bactrians. Nonnus in his Dionysiaca reports about the Amazons of Dionysus, but states that they do not come from Thermodon. [24] [49]

Amazons and Alexander the Great Edit

Amazons are also mentioned by biographers of Alexander the Great, who report of Queen Thalestris bearing him a child (a story in the Alexander Romantis). [50] However, other biographers of Alexander dispute the claim, including the highly regarded Plutarch. He noted a moment when Alexander's naval commander Onesicritus read an Amazon myth passage of his Alexander History to King Lysimachus of Thrace who had taken part in the original expedition. The king smiled at him and said: And where was I, then? [51]

Roman and ancient Egyptian records Edit

Virgil's characterization of the Volsci a warrior maiden Camilla in the Aeneid borrows from the myths of the Amazons. Philostratus, in Heroica, writes that the Mysian women fought on horses alongside the men, just as the Amazons. The leader was Hiera, wife of Telephus. The Amazons are also said to have undertaken an expedition against the Island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube, where the ashes of Achilles were deposited by Thetis. The ghost of the dead hero so terrified the horses, that they threw off and trampled upon the invaders, who were forced to retreat. [21] Virgil touches on the Amazons and their queen Penthesilea in his epic Aeneid (around 20 BC).

The biographer Suetonius had Julius Caesar remark in his De vita Caesarum that the Amazons once ruled a large part of Asia. Appian provides a vivid description of Themiscyra and its fortifications in his account of Lucius Lucinius Lucullus' Siege of Themiscyra in 71 BC during the Third Mithridatic War. [52] [53] [44]

An Amazon myth has been partly preserved in two badly fragmented versions around historical people in 7th century BC Egypt. The Egyptian prince Petechonsis and allied Assyrian troops undertook a joint campaign into the Land of Women, ke Middle East at the border to India. Petechonsis initially fought the Amazons, but soon fell in love with their queen Sarpot and eventually allied with her against an invading Indian army. This story is said to have originated in Egypt independently of Greek influences. [54] [55]

Amazon queens Edit

Sources provide names of individual Amazons, that are referred to as queens of their people, even as the head of a dynasty. Without a male companion, they are portrayed in command of their female warriors. Among the most prominent Amazon queens were:

Otrera, was the daughter of the nymph Harmonia and god of war, Ares. She was the mother of Hippolyta, Antiope, Melanippe, and Penthesilea. She is the mythical founder of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus.

Hippolyte, daughter of Utrera and Ares, part of the Theseus and Heracles myths, Antiope is her sister there. Alcippe, the only Amazon known to have sworn a chastity oath, belongs to her entourage.

Penthesilea, kills her sister Hippolyte in a hunting accident, comes to the aid of the hard-pressed Trojans with her warriors, is defeated by Achilles, who falls in love with the dying woman.

Myrina, leader of a military expedition in Libya, defeats the Atlanteans, forms an alliance with the ruler of Egypt, and conquers numerous cities and islands.

Thalestris, the last known Amazon queen. Meets, according to legend, the Greek conqueror Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Her home is the Thermodon region, or variably the Gates of Alexander, south of the Caspian Sea.

Quintus Smyrnaeus Edit

Quintus Smyrnaeus, author of the Posthomerica lists the attendant warriors of Penthesilea: "Clonie was there, Polemusa, Derinoe, Evandre, and Antandre, and Bremusa, Hippothoe, dark-eyed Harmothoe, Alcibie, Derimacheia, Antibrote, and Thermodosa glorying with the spear." [56]

Diodorus Siculus Edit

Diodorus Siculus lists twelve Amazons who challenged and died fighting Heracles during his quest for Hippolyta's girdle: Aella, Philippis, Prothoe, Eriboea, Celaeno, Eurybia, Phoebe, Deianeira, Asteria, Marpe, Tecmessa, Alcippe. After Alcippe's death, a group attack followed. Diodorus also mentions Melanippe, who Heracles set free after accepting her girdle and Antiope as ransom. [57]

Diodorus lists another group with Myrina as the queen who commanded the Amazons in a military expedition in Libya, as well as her sister Mytilene, after whom she named the city of the same name. Myrina also named three more cities after the Amazons who held the most important commands under her, Cyme, Pitane, and Priene.

Justin and Paulus Orosius Edit

Both Justin in his Epitome of Trogus Pompeius and Paulus Orosius give an account of the Amazons, citing the same names. Queens Marpesia and Lampedo shared the power during an incursion in Europe and Asia, where they were slain. Marpesia's daughter Orithyia succeeded them and was greatly admired for her skill on war. She shared power with her sister Antiope, but she was engaged in war abroad when Heracles attacked. Two of Antiope's sisters were taken prisoner, Menalippe by Heracles and Hippolyta by Theseus. Heracles latter restored Menalippe to her sister after receiving the queen's arms in exchange, though, on other accounts she was killed by Telamon. They also mention Penthesilea's role in the Trojan War. [58] [59] [60]

Hyginus Edit

Perhaps the most important is Queen Otrera, consort of Ares and mother by him of Hippolyta and Penthesilea. [62] She's also known for building a temple to Artemis at Ephesus. [63]

Valerius Flaccus Edit

Another different set of names is found in Valerius Flaccus' Argonautika. He mentions Euryale, Harpe, Lyce, Menippe and Thoe. Of these Lyce also appears on a fragment, preserved in the Latin Anthology where she is said to have killed the hero Clonus of Moesia, son of Doryclus, with her javelin. [64]

Stephanus of Byzantium (7th-century CE) provides numerous alternative lists of the Amazons, including for those who died in combat against Hercules, describing them as the most prominent of their people. Both Stephanus and Eustathius connect these Amazons with the placename Thibais, which they claim to have been derived from the Amazon Thiba's nama. [65] Several of Stephanus' Amazons served as eponyms for cities in Asia Minor, like Cyme dan Smyrna atau Amastris, who was believed to lend her name to the city previously known as Kromna, although in fact it was named after the historical Amastris. The city Anaea in Caria was named after an Amazon. [66] [67]

Dalam karyanya Getica (on the origin and history of the Goths, c. 551 CE ) Jordanes asserts that the Goths' ancestors, descendants of Magog, originally lived in Scythia, at the Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Don Rivers. When the Goths were abroad campaigning against Pharaoh Vesosis, their women, on their own successfully fended off a raid by a neighboring tribe. Emboldened, the women established their own army under Marpesia, crossed the Don and invaded eastward into Asia. Marpesia's sister Lampedo remained in Europe to guard the homeland. They procreated with men once a year. These women conquered Armenia, Syria and all of Asia Minor, even reaching Ionia and Aeolis, holding this vast territory for 100 years.

Dalam Grottaferrata Version dari Digenes Akritas, the twelfth century medieval epic of Basil, the Greco-Syrian knight of the Byzantine frontier, the hero battles with and kills the female warrior Maximo, descended from some Amazons and taken by Alexander from the Brahmans. [68] [69]

John Tzetzes lists in Posthomerika twenty Amazons, who fell at Troy. This list is unique in its attestation for all the names but Antianeira, Andromache and Hippothoe. Other than these three, the remaining 17 Amazons were named as Toxophone, Toxoanassa, Gortyessa, Iodoce, Pharetre, Andro, Ioxeia, Oistrophe, Androdaixa, Aspidocharme, Enchesimargos, Cnemis, Thorece, Chalcaor, Eurylophe, Hecate, and Anchimache. [70]

Amazons continued to be subject of scholarly debate during the European Renaissance, and with the onset of the Age of Exploration, encounters were reported from ever more distant lands. In 1542, Francisco de Orellana reached the Amazon River, naming it after icamiabas [71] a tribe of warlike women he claimed to have encountered and fought on the Nhamundá River, a tributary of the Amazon. [72] Afterwards the whole basin and region of the Amazon (Amazônia in Portuguese, Amazonía in Spanish) were named after the river. Amazons also figure in the accounts of both Christopher Columbus and Walter Raleigh. [73] Famous medieval traveller John Mandeville mentions them in his book:

Beside the land of Chaldea is the land of Amazonia, that is the land of Feminye. And in that realm is all woman and no man not as some may say, that men may not live there, but for because that the women will not suffer no men amongst them to be their sovereigns. [74]

Medieval and Renaissance authors credit the Amazons with the invention of the battle-axe. This is probably related to the sagaris, an axe-like weapon associated with both Amazons and Scythian tribes by Greek authors (see also Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo kurgan). Paulus Hector Mair expresses astonishment that such a "manly weapon" should have been invented by a "tribe of women", but he accepts the attribution out of respect for his authority, Johannes Aventinus.

Ariosto's Orlando Furioso contains a country of warrior women, ruled by Queen Orontea the epic describes an origin much like that in Greek myth, in that the women, abandoned by a band of warriors and unfaithful lovers, rallied together to form a nation from which men were severely reduced, to prevent them from regaining power. The Amazons and Queen Hippolyta are also referenced in Geoffrey Chaucer's Kisah Canterbury in "The Knight's Tale".

Beginning around 550 BC. depictions of Amazons as daring fighters and equestrian warriors appeared on vases. After the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC the Amazon battle - Amazonomachy became popular motifs on pottery. By the sixth century BC, public and privately displayed artwork used the Amazon imagery for pediment reliefs, sarcophagi, mosaics, pottery, jewelry and even monumental sculptures, that adorned important buildings like the Parthenon in Athens. Amazon motifs remained popular until the Roman imperial period and into Late antiquity. [75]

Apart from the artistic desire to express the passionate womanhood of the Amazons in contrast with the manhood of their enemies, some modern historians interpret the popularity of Amazon in art as indicators of societal trends, both positive and negative. Greek and Roman societies, however, utilized the Amazon mythology as a literary and artistic vehicle to unite against a commonly-held enemy. The metaphysical characteristics of Amazons were seen as personifications of both nature and religion. Roman authors like Virgil, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Curtius, Plutarch, Arrian, and Pausanius advocated the greatness of the state, as Amazon myths served to discuss the creation of origin and identity for the Roman people. However, that changed over time. Amazons in Roman literature and art have many faces, such as the Trojan ally, the warrior goddess, the native Latin, the warmongering Celt, the proud Sarmatian, the hedonistic and passionate Thracian warrior queen, the subdued Asian city, and the worthy Roman foe. [76] [77] [78]

In Renaissance Europe, artists started to reevaluate and depict Amazons based on Christian ethics. Queen Elizabeth of England was associated with Amazon warrior qualities (the foremost ancient examples of feminism) during her reign and was indeed depicted as such. Though, as explained in Divinia Viagro by Winfried Schleiner, Celeste T. Wright has given a detailed account of the bad reputation Amazons had in the Renaissance. She notes that she has not found any Elizabethans comparing the Queen to an Amazon and suggests that they might have hesitated to do so because of the association of Amazons with enfranchisement of women, which was considered contemptible. [79]

Peter Paul Rubens and Jan Brueghel depicted the Battle of the Amazons around 1598, a most dramatic baroque painting, followed by a painting of the Rococo period by Johann Georg Platzer, also titled Battle of the Amazons. In 19th-century European Romanticism German artist Anselm Feuerbach occupied himself with the Amazons as well. His paintings engendered all the aspirations of the Romantics: their desire to transcend the boundaries of the ego and of the known world their interest in the occult in nature and in the soul their search for a national identity, and the ensuing search for the mythic origins of the Germanic nation finally, their wish to escape the harsh realities of the present through immersion in an idealized past. [80]

Speculation that the idea of Amazons contains a core of reality is based on archaeological discoveries at kurgan burial sites in the steppes of southern Ukraine and Russia. The graves of numerous high-ranking Scythian and Sarmatian warrior women, who might have participated in warfare, led scholars to suggest that the Amazonian legend has been inspired by the real world. About 20% of the warrior graves on the lower Don and lower Volga contained women dressed for battle similar to how men dress. Armed women accounted for up to 25% of Sarmatian military burials. Russian archaeologist Vera Kovalevskaya asserts, that when Scythian men were abroad fighting or hunting, women would have to be able to competently defend themselves, their animals and pastures. [81]

In early 20th century Minoan archeology a theory regarding Amazon origins in Minoan civilization was raised in an essay by Lewis Richard Farnell and John Myres. According to Myres, the tradition interpreted in the light of evidence furnished by supposed Amazon cults seems to have been very similar and may have even originated in Minoan culture. [82]


1 Hippolyta Will Appear In Justice League

Hippolyta just made her big screen debut in Wonder Woman, now in theaters. Audiences didn’t get to see too much of her on screen just yet, since very little of the film took place in Themyscira and Hippolyta didn’t leave the island. She has been confirmed to appear in Justice League, out in November, though.

Just how will Hippolyta play into Justice League? That remains to be seen. While the trailer has hinted at flashbacks to the past of the Amazons and Atlanteans, Hippolyta may have more to do than just pop up for a bit of history. Could we see a big enough threat lure Hippolyta away from her beloved Themyscira?

Last time movie audiences saw her, without giving too much away, she was standing on the island shores while Diana went out into the world to aid mankind during WWI. Audiences don’t know if they’ve crossed paths in the years since. Justice League would be a good time to find out.

The Queen of the Amazons has had nearly as adventurous of a time in the comics and other media as Diana has. Did you learn something new about Hippolyta? Beri tahu kami di komentar!

Be sure to catch Hippolyta on the big screen in Wonder Woman, which is in theaters now.

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Tonton videonya: Wonder Woman: The True Amazon Review (Januari 2022).