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Gerbang Umum - Sejarah

Gerbang Umum - Sejarah


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Jenderal Gates

Jenderal Gates, lihat Gates untuk biografi.

(Brig: a. 18 g.)

General Gates, mantan pedagang Inggris brigantine Industrious Bee, dibangun pada 1764 di Bristol, Inggris, untuk operasi oleh Clapman & Co., ditangkap 20 Agustus 1777 oleh Kapten John Skimmer di sekunar Kontinental Lee saat menuju dari Gibraltar ke Newfoundland, dibeli 19 Desember oleh Dewan Angkatan Laut di Boston; dilengkapi dengan 18 senjata; dan berganti nama menjadi Jenderal Gates, Kapten John Skimmer sebagai komandan.

Jenderal Gates berlayar dari Marblehead 24 Mei 1778, bergabung dengan brigantine Hawk dari Cape Ann untuk berlayar di Newfoundland Banks. Setelah penangkapan kapal Jenny, dan brigantines Thomas dan Nancy, kedua kapal berpisah pada awal Agustus. Setelah itu Jenderal Gates menangkap sekunar Polly Pada 3 Agustus 1778 dia mencegat brigantine Montague di bawah Kapten Nelson, yang mempertahankan kapalnya dalam pertempuran epik selama 5 jam. Setelah menghabiskan amunisinya, Montague terpaksa menembakkan "setiap potongan besi dari semua jenis yang dapat ditancapkan ke dalam tabung meriam," termasuk pisau dongkrak, linggis, dan bahkan tabung yang berbicara kapten. Tembakan berkepala dua dari Jenderal Gates menabrak kabin Kapten Nelson. Mengambilnya, Nelson menembakkannya dari salah satu senjatanya sendiri. "Tembakan ini mengenai pistol putar di brig Negara yang terbelah, dan satu bagian dari tembakan itu langsung membunuh Kapten Skimmer yang aktif dan pemberani." Itu 2 jam lagi sebelum Montage memukul warna dan menyerah pada Jenderal Gates dengan Letnan Dennis sebagai komando. Jenderal Gates kembali ke Pelabuhan Boston dengan hadiah Polly dan Montague 31 Agustus 1778.

Jenderal Gates berangkat Boston 14 November di perusahaan dengan Providence untuk perairan Nova Scotian. Dia menangkap sekunar Friendship di Casco 4 Desember dan 2 hari kemudian, dipisahkan oleh badai dari Providence, kemudian berlayar di perairan India Barat. Dia menangkap sekunar Jenderal Leslie dari Bermuda pada bagian pertama Februari 1779, kemudian bergabung dengan Hazard di Martinique. Bersama-sama mereka menangkap brigs Artic 16 Maret dan Union pada hari berikutnya.

Jenderal Gates kembali ke pelabuhan Boston 13 April 1779, sangat tidak layak berlayar dari angin kencang sehingga krunya, kadang-kadang, putus asa untuk mencapai pelabuhan. Dia diperintahkan dijual 2 Juni 1779. Pada bulan Agustus dia dipinjamkan oleh Dewan Angkatan Laut kepada Wakil Komisaris Tahanan di Boston untuk membawa tahanan ke New York. Setelah menyelesaikan misi ini, dia dijual.


Pada Hari Ini dalam Sejarah -10 April 1806

Pada hari ini dalam sejarah, 10 April 1806, Jenderal Gerbang Horatio mati. Gates adalah salah satu tokoh militer paling kontroversial dari Revolusi Amerika karena keinginannya yang konstan untuk promosi, kecemburuannya terhadap George Washington dan kecenderungannya untuk terlalu berhati-hati.

Gates bergabung dengan tentara dan bertugas di Jerman dan Nova Scotia. Dia terluka di Pertempuran Monongahela selama Perang Perancis dan India, pertempuran yang sama dari mana seorang Kolonel muda George Washington memimpin orang-orang yang selamat dari Ekspedisi Braddock untuk keselamatan. Setelah ini, Gates, yang merupakan administrator yang sangat berbakat, menjadi kepala staf di Fort Pitt.

Setelah akhir Perang Prancis dan India, tentara dirampingkan dan karir Gates terhenti. Dia meninggalkan tentara dan membeli sebuah perkebunan kecil di Virginia. Dia membangun kembali persahabatannya dengan George Washington dan, ketika Revolusi Amerika pecah, dengan cepat menawarkan jasanya.

Ketika Washington diangkat menjadi Panglima Angkatan Darat Kontinental, Gates cemburu, percaya bahwa dia seharusnya menerima posisi itu. Washington merekomendasikan Gates untuk diangkat menjadi Ajudan Jenderal tentara, atau kepala petugas administrasi. Kongres setuju dan juga mengangkatnya menjadi Brigadir Jenderal. Keterampilan organisasi Gates sangat penting pada hari-hari awal konflik saat ia mengorganisir tentara, membuat sistem pencatatan dan membantu merampingkan kekuatan kolonial.

Gates menekan Kongres untuk posisi lapangan dan segera menemukan dirinya di bawah Mayor Jenderal Philip Schuyler di New York, di mana ia dikreditkan dengan membalikkan invasi Inggris di Danau Champlain. Dia mengambil pasukan untuk membantu Washington di New Jersey dan mencegahnya menyerang Inggris di Trenton dan Princeton. Alih-alih berpartisipasi dalam pertarungan ini, Gates pergi ke Baltimore untuk membujuk Kongres agar memberinya posisi Washington, tetapi ini ditolak setelah kemenangan di Trenton dan Princeton.

Pada 1777, Gates menggantikan Jenderal Schuyler dan kemudian memimpin pasukan di Pertempuran Saratoga ketika Jenderal Inggris Burgoyne menyerah kepada Amerika. Gates menerima pujian itu, tetapi sebagian besar sejarawan setuju bahwa kemenangan itu disebabkan oleh tindakan bawahannya. Tak lama setelah itu, Gates kembali menekan Kongres untuk diangkat menjadi Panglima Tertinggi. Beberapa surat pribadinya, di mana dia mengkritik Washington, terungkap selama insiden yang disebut Conway Cabal, di mana Jenderal Thomas Conway dan yang lainnya secara aktif mencoba menggantikan Washington dengan Gates. Gates merasa malu dengan situasi tersebut dan terpaksa meminta maaf.

Setelah kehilangan 5.000 orang Jenderal Benjamin Lincoln di Pengepungan Charleston, Carolina Selatan, Gates diberi komando Departemen Selatan. Dia dengan bodohnya memimpin pasukan yang tidak siap dan lapar untuk menyerang langsung ke Pertempuran Camden di mana hampir 2.000 orang terbunuh atau ditangkap, secara efektif mengakhiri karir militernya. Dia hampir diadili di pengadilan militer karena kegagalannya, tetapi para pendukungnya mengalahkannya.

Ketika perang usai, dia kembali ke Virginia dan menikahi seorang janda kaya. Mereka pindah ke New York di mana dia menjalani sisa hidupnya. Dia menjabat satu periode di legislatif New York pada tahun 1800 dan meninggal pada tahun 1806 dan dimakamkan di Gereja Trinity di Wall Street.


Gerbang Umum - Sejarah

Keterangan : Film ini adalah dramatisasi kemenangan Washington di Trenton sehari setelah Natal, 1776. Seandainya Washington tidak mencoba menyeberangi Sungai Delaware yang tertutup es dan Kontinental yang kurang makan, beku, kurang terlatih, dan bersenjata buruk gagal menang atas tentara bayaran Hessian yang ditakuti, Revolusi Amerika mungkin akan runtuh. Film ini menyajikan kisah pertempuran itu.

Alasan Menggunakan Film: Film ini menunjukkan peristiwa penting dalam Perang Revolusi dan memberi siswa gambaran sekilas tentang salah satu pertempuran luar biasa di mana beberapa tentara yang gigih mengubah jalannya sejarah. Ini menunjukkan beberapa kesulitan dalam sebuah revolusi melawan kekuatan yang kuat dari Kerajaan Inggris. Film ini memanusiakan George Washington, sering terlihat jauh dan menyendiri, saat ia bersaing dengan pasukan Inggris yang jauh lebih unggul.

Tujuan/Hasil Siswa Menggunakan ini Panduan Belajar: Siswa akan memahami situasi putus asa Tentara Kontinental dan Revolusi pada bulan Desember 1776 dan peran penting Pertempuran Trenton dalam menyelamatkan Revolusi. Film ini memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk melatih keterampilan membaca, meneliti, berpikir dan menulis.


    Selama periode antara penandatanganan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan pada bulan Juli dan Desember 1776, Tentara Kontinental telah berulang kali dikalahkan. Amerika telah diarahkan ke Long Island dan dipaksa mundur dari New York City. Dua benteng terpenting mereka di Sungai Hudson, Fort Lee dan Fort Washington, telah jatuh ke tangan Inggris. Dalam upaya putus asa untuk menyelamatkan tentara, Washington mundur ke "Jersey", sebagai daerah itu kemudian disebut. Komandan Inggris, Jenderal Howe, menetap di musim dingin di Philadelphia, menikmati kemesraan romantis dengan istri seorang loyalis terkemuka. Dia gagal "menyita hipotek" pada para pemberontak, seperti yang kemudian dikatakan salah satu perwiranya dengan jijik.

Penyeberangan sungai dimulai pada pukul 3 sore. di hari Natal. Cuaca menyebabkan kesulitan yang luar biasa. Ajudan Washington, Kolonel John Fitzgerald, menulis pada pukul 6 sore, ketika pasukan mulai menyeberangi sungai: "Dingin dan dingin yang menakutkan dan badai salju sedang terjadi. Angin timur laut dan menerpa wajah orang-orang itu. menjadi malam yang mengerikan bagi mereka yang tidak memiliki sepatu. Beberapa dari mereka hanya mengikat kain compang-camping di kaki mereka: yang lain bertelanjang kaki, tetapi saya belum pernah mendengar seorang pria mengeluh." Cuaca, meskipun menantang, terbukti menguntungkan bagi Kontinental, karena berhembus ke muka musuh. Juga, parahnya cuaca dingin meyakinkan orang-orang Hessians dan Inggris bahwa Amerika tidak akan mencoba menyeberang. Patroli normal dibatalkan, dan orang Amerika dapat mendekat tanpa terdeteksi.

Pasukan Washington tidak bisa menyeberangi sungai sampai jam 4 pagi, akibatnya perkemahan Hessian harus diserang di siang hari. Mengamati komandannya pada jam itu, seorang petani muda bernama John Greenwood menulis: "Saya belum pernah melihat Washington begitu bertekad seperti dia sekarang. Dia berdiri di tepi sungai, terbungkus jubahnya, mengawasi pendaratan pasukan. Dia tenang dan tenang, tetapi sangat teguh. Badai berubah menjadi hujan es, dan memotong seperti pisau."

Pertempuran Trenton dimulai pada pukul 8 pagi pada tanggal 26 Desember ketika penjaga Hessian melepaskan tembakan. Orang-orang Hessians sama sekali tidak siap, meskipun itu adalah mitos bahwa mereka diharapkan untuk mabuk. Jerman merayakan perayaan mereka pada Malam Natal, sehingga para prajurit memiliki waktu 36 jam penuh untuk sadar. Orang-orang Hessian itu selalu waspada selama berminggu-minggu. Sementara orang Amerika telah menutupi flintlock mereka dengan jubah mereka sehingga bubuk mereka akan tetap kering, orang Hessians menemukan sebagian besar senjata mereka tidak berguna. 106 tentara Hessian terbunuh atau terluka dan sekitar 900 ditangkap. Banyak yang lolos. Seperti yang ditunjukkan film itu, pemimpin mereka yang terluka, Kolonel Rall, memohon kepada Washington agar pasukannya diperlakukan secara manusiawi. Washington setuju, meskipun faktanya selama Pertempuran Long Island, orang Hessian telah membantai tentara Amerika yang berusaha menyerah.

Keberhasilan Pertempuran Trenton membalikkan dominasi psikologis yang dicapai oleh Inggris sejak Deklarasi Kemerdekaan. Edward J. Lowell dalam bukunya, Orang-orang Hessian menyimpulkan: "Pentingnya Trenton bagi orang Amerika tidak boleh diperhitungkan hanya dengan tes numerik dari orang-orang yang terbunuh, terluka, dan tahanan. Itu adalah bukti baru bagi para penjajah yang tidak terampil dan miskin bahwa mereka baik untuk sesuatu sebagai tentara, dan bahwa mereka Penyebabnya bukannya tanpa harapan. Datang setelah perjalanan panjang mundur dan bencana, hal itu mengilhami mereka dengan keberanian baru. Bunker Hill telah mengajari orang Amerika bahwa tentara tetap Inggris dapat dilawan. Trenton membuktikan kepada mereka dalam satu jam putus asa bahwa orang Hessians yang ditakuti bisa menjadi ditaklukkan."

Pertempuran Trenton membuktikan kepada Amerika, Inggris, dan seluruh Eropa bahwa pasukan Koloni Amerika dapat mengalahkan tentara terbaik Kerajaan Inggris. Ini menunjukkan bahwa pemberontak memiliki kesempatan untuk memenangkan perang. Fakta bahwa jumlah orang Kontinental melebihi jumlah orang Hessians hampir dua banding satu dan memiliki keuntungan kejutan tidak menjadi masalah karena sampai pertempuran ini kebanyakan orang berpikir bahwa orang-orang Hessians tidak dapat dikalahkan oleh kekuatan apapun dari Continentals. Pertempuran Trenton juga menunjukkan bahwa Washington adalah seorang jenderal yang cerdas dan banyak akal yang dapat menggerakkan pasukannya dengan cepat untuk mengambil keuntungan dari kesalahan pihak lain. Dalam hal ini, kesalahannya adalah bahwa Inggris telah membiarkan garis mereka menjadi terlalu panjang dan mereka terlalu percaya diri.


    Pertempuran Trenton diikuti oleh keberhasilan lain di Princeton. Bersama-sama kemenangan ini membangun reputasi Jenderal Washington sebagai pemimpin teladan. Kemenangan di Trenton dan Princeton mendorong Prancis dan Spanyol untuk campur tangan di pihak Amerika, sebuah perkembangan yang terbukti menentukan dalam mengalahkan Inggris.

Catatan tentang Karakter George Washington Nasib baik yang luar biasa dari Amerika Serikat dalam karakter para Founding Fathers dicontohkan oleh George Washington. Volume telah ditulis tentang karakternya. Berikut adalah beberapa poin yang membuat kami terkesan:

Pria itu mungkin memiliki penilaian terbaik dari tokoh mana pun dalam sejarah. Dia memiliki kapasitas untuk mengambil situasi dan membuat keputusan yang benar yang akan menginspirasi generasi. Ada banyak contoh, tetapi yang paling utama adalah keputusannya untuk pensiun dari kehidupan publik pada puncak kekuasaan dan prestisenya sebagai Panglima Tertinggi pada akhir Perang Revolusi. Ini, mungkin, salah satu pertama kalinya seorang pemimpin secara sukarela pensiun di puncak kekuasaannya. Washington melakukan prestasi yang sama lagi, ketika dia pensiun dari Kepresidenan setelah dua masa jabatan.

Di dalam 1776 , sejarawan David McCullough mencatat bahwa meskipun Washington "[A] tunduk pada saat-saat keraguan dan ketidakpastian, dia berhasil mengumpulkan kepercayaan diri yang diperlukan untuk bertahan di tengah bencana. Dia . tangguh, terbuka untuk ide-ide baru dan jarang gagal belajar dari kesalahannya."

Ada satu area di mana Washington harus dikritik: sebagai salah satu orang terkaya di Virginia, dia memperbudak. Washington hidup dalam masyarakat di mana menahan budak tidak dianggap tidak bermoral. Namun, di sini sekali lagi, Washington membuktikan dirinya lebih cerdas daripada rekan-rekannya. Dalam wasiatnya dia membebaskan budaknya dan menciptakan dana perwalian untuk membantu mereka menyesuaikan diri dengan kebebasan.

Memanusiakan Ikon

George Washington adalah seorang pria yang tersiksa oleh ketakutan akan kegagalan dalam perannya sebagai Panglima Tertinggi. Dia memiliki tiga gairah dalam hidup: Revolusi, arsitektur, dan teater. Dia secara pribadi mengarahkan penambahan besar ke rumahnya di Mount Vernon dan ketika tugas publik memanggilnya pergi, Washington menulis instruksi terperinci kepada manajernya tentang proyek tersebut. Adapun teater, jika dia bisa, dia akan pergi bermain empat malam dalam seminggu. Washington juga suka menari.

Ketika dia tumbuh dewasa, keluarga Washington tidak memiliki uang untuk menyekolahkannya dan dia hanya menerima sedikit pendidikan formal. Dia menikah dengan kekayaan. Pada usia paruh baya, Washington telah kehilangan sebagian besar gigi atasnya. Dia mencoba beberapa jenis gigi palsu, beberapa di antaranya sangat menyakitkan.

Kepemimpinan Washington Pada Pertempuran Trenton

Jenderal Washington menampilkan banyak atribut kepemimpinan yang baik dalam Pertempuran Trenton dan beberapa di antaranya ditampilkan dalam film. Mereka adalah: (1) Dia memahami gambaran yang lebih besar dan bahwa Revolusi membutuhkan kemenangan. Tak seorang pun di pihak Inggris menghargai fakta ini. Jika mereka memiliki pasukan Hessian akan waspada dan Kolonel Rall akan bereaksi terhadap pesan bahwa penjajah berbaris di posisinya. (2) Washington mengambil inisiatif sehingga dia memiliki kendali atas berbagai peristiwa.(3) Dia memilih bawahan yang baik untuk melaksanakan perintahnya seperti Knox dan Glover. (4) Dia tahu kapan harus berdiri teguh (misalnya tekadnya untuk terus maju dengan serangan dalam menghadapi badai salju dan meskipun itu tidak dapat dimulai sebelum fajar). (5) Washington tahu bagaimana menginspirasi anak buahnya. (6) Washington secara akurat memperkirakan tindakan musuh-musuhnya.

Catatan tentang Pria yang Ditampilkan dalam Film

Alexander Hamilton: Meskipun "The Crossing" memiliki Alexander Hamilton muda yang bertindak sebagai ajudan Washington, dia tidak menempati posisi itu sampai beberapa minggu setelah Pertempuran Trenton. Itu adalah Letnan muda James Monroe (presiden masa depan) dan sepupu jauh Washington, Kapten William Washington, yang menyerang pos terdepan Hessian, bukan Hamilton. Mereka berdua terluka dalam aksi itu. Namun, film ini benar tentang hubungan dekat antara Washington dan Alexander Hamilton, dengan Washington mengambil peran ayah.


Potret Alexander Hamilton
oleh John Trumbull (1792)
Galeri Seni Nasional

Alexander Hamilton adalah contoh promosi berdasarkan prestasi di Angkatan Darat Kontinental dan kemudian di negara baru. Hamilton dilahirkan tidak sah di Hindia Barat. Terlepas dari latar belakang yang sederhana ini, ia menjadi sekretaris dan pembantu pribadi Washington setelah Pertempuran Princeton. Hamilton adalah rekan penulis, bersama dengan James Madison dan John Jay dari Federalist Papers. Kemudian, Washington akan menunjuknya menjadi Menteri Keuangan pertama. Ironisnya, baik Hamilton maupun pria yang nantinya akan menembaknya hingga tewas dalam duel terkenal, Aaron Burr, ikut serta dalam Battle of Trenton.

Gerbang Horatio: Gates memiliki reputasi buruk dengan pengagum Washington karena ia berulang kali bersekongkol untuk menjadi kepala Angkatan Darat Kontinental. Gates memiliki lebih banyak pengalaman militer daripada Washington dan menganggap dirinya sebagai prajurit yang unggul. Banyak yang setuju dengan penilaian ini setelah retret yang panjang dan membawa malapetaka dari New York City. Gates menganggap Washington sebagai "pemimpin yang sangat buruk." Film ini akurat dalam penggambaran penghinaan Gates untuk Virginian dan keengganan Gates untuk membiarkan atasannya mengetahui pergerakan pasukannya. Howard Fast, penulis skenario, menyarankan bahwa Gates mungkin telah membuat argumen bahwa: 1) "tentara" Washington tidak terlatih dan tidak disiplin 2) mereka hanya mundur dan tidak tahu bagaimana menyerang 3) pendaftaran mereka akan meningkat pada 11 hari dan mereka tidak memiliki insentif untuk mengambil risiko apa pun 4) tidak mungkin merahasiakan serangan dari Hessians dan 5) Continentals tidak bisa mengalahkan Hessians, tentara profesional paling terlatih yang ditawarkan Eropa. Sebenarnya, Washington dan Gates bertemu sendirian malam itu. Ketika Washington mengerti bahwa kehadiran Gates hanya akan merusak moral pasukan, dia memerintahkan jenderal itu keluar dari kamp atau membiarkannya maju ke Kongres untuk mengeluhkan perlakuan buruk. Apa yang kita ketahui adalah bahwa Gates meninggalkan kamp Washington tanpa pasukannya dan bersekongkol dengan berbagai anggota Kongres untuk menjadi komandan Angkatan Darat Kontinental bahkan ketika Washington membuat pertaruhan putus asa di Trenton.

Gates masih tertarik untuk menggantikan Washington pada tahun 1778, ketika ia berkonspirasi dengan sebuah kelompok yang dikenal sebagai "Conway Cabal". Washington menangkis upaya tersebut dengan mengungkap kebohongan Gates. Kejatuhan Gates terjadi pada tahun 1780 ketika ia kalah dalam pertempuran di Camden, Carolina Selatan, dari Lord Cornwallis dan diskors dari tugas. Film ini menangkap arogansi Gates, tetapi mengabaikan kualitasnya yang lebih baik seperti kemurahan hatinya yang ekstrem kepada tentara yang miskin dan terluka dan keputusan untuk membebaskan budaknya sebelum meninggalkan Virginia untuk tinggal di New York City.

Untuk situs web tentang Jenderal Gates, lihat Orang Amerika Terkenal

John Glover: Glover berasal dari Marblehead Massachusetts. Lahir dari keluarga sederhana, dia menabung untuk membeli sekunar. Pada saat Revolusi, dia adalah orang kaya dan kolonel milisi lokal, sebuah kelompok yang dia bawa ke dalam pertempuran. Tiga dari kapal Glover sendiri adalah kapal pertama di Angkatan Laut Amerika, dan sumber daya Glover sangat diperlukan untuk tujuan Amerika. Glover dan nelayannya menyelamatkan tentara Kontinental tiga kali selama retret panjang ke Sungai Delaware. Mungkin ekstraksi yang paling spektakuler terjadi pada 29 Agustus 1776, empat bulan sebelum Pertempuran Trenton, ketika tentara Washington terjebak di Long Island. Dalam sebuah langkah yang membuatnya mendapat julukan "Rubah Tua", Washington memerintahkan tentara layar Glover untuk membawa pasukannya melintasi Sungai Timur yang lebarnya satu mil di hadapan pasukan yang ukurannya tiga kali lipat. The "Marvelous Men of Marblehead" memindahkan 9.000 tentara dan peralatan mereka ke tempat yang aman, dan Angkatan Darat Kontinental hidup untuk berperang di hari lain. Sejarawan Inggris George Trevalyan mengatakan tentang "tentara berkaki jaring" ini: "Mungkin diragukan apakah sejumlah kecil orang pernah dipekerjakan dalam waktu yang begitu singkat dengan hasil yang lebih besar dan lebih tahan lama." Marinir modern mengklaim pria Marblehead Glover sebagai yang pertama dari "Korps lama".

"The Crossing" membuat kepercayaan Washington pada Glover eksplisit, saat ia menempatkan pelaut yang suka berkelahi itu untuk bertanggung jawab atas semua orang, bahkan dirinya sendiri, saat berada di sungai. Atas protes Glover, dia dipromosikan menjadi brigadir jenderal dua bulan setelah penyeberangan Delaware. Film tersebut menunjukkan Washington mengeluh bahwa Glover telah menjadi "duri di pihak saya sejak hari kami bertemu". Nyatanya, dua pria yang lebih berbeda dari bangsawan Virginia dengan kecenderungan Deist dan "nelayan Marblehead dari persuasi Kongregasional" akan sulit dibayangkan. Satu-satunya hal yang tampaknya mereka bagikan adalah keengganan terhadap wig. Meskipun Washington membedaki rambutnya, dia memakai rambutnya sendiri. Untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang bagaimana "Header" masih diingat di Marblehead, Massachusetts, baca "The Ebbing Tide is Reversed" dari Majalah Marblehead.


Patung Glover, Marblehead, Massachusetts

Untuk situs web tentang Glover lihat, Artikel tentang John Glover di Wikipedia. Biografi terbaik Glover adalah oleh Nathan Billias, John Glover dan Pelaut Marblehead-nya , diterbitkan pada tahun 1960.

Natanael Greene: Dibesarkan sebagai Quaker di Rhode Island, Greene dibacakan dari Gedung Pertemuannya ketika dia melanggar "kesaksian damai" gerejanya dan bergabung dengan Angkatan Darat Kontinental. Greene dan Washington adalah satu-satunya jenderal Kontinental yang melayani selama seluruh Revolusi. Di Trenton, Washington mengungkapkan kepercayaannya pada Greene dengan memberinya komando setengah tentara. Setelah membedakan dirinya selama pertempuran di New Jersey dan Pennsylvania, Greene diangkat menjadi komandan Departemen Selatan. Di sana dia menunjukkan dirinya sebagai salah satu ahli strategi terbaik di ketentaraan.

Karena Greene menyumbangkan semua harta dan propertinya untuk membantu Revolusi, negara bagian Georgia memberinya perkebunan di dekat Savannah. Greene meninggal di sana hanya tiga tahun setelah perdamaian datang.

Untuk situs web tentang Nathanael Green, lihat Mayor Jenderal Nathanael Greene dari wikipedia.org.

William Howe: Sejarawan militer masih memperdebatkan kelebihan dan kekurangan Howe sebagai panglima tertinggi Inggris. Howe menggantikan Thomas Gage pada tahun 1775 dan memimpin serangan yang berhasil terhadap tentara Washington di New York. Namun, ia membiarkan Tentara Kontinental melarikan diri dari Long Island, dan kehilangan kesempatan untuk mengakhiri pemberontakan lebih awal. Karena perselingkuhannya dengan Elizabeth Loring, istri Loyalis Joshua Loring, ia menetap di Philadelphia selama Desember 1776. Seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh karakter Hugh Mercer ke Washington, pezina yang mengambil dapat dikreditkan dengan "keberlanjutan keberadaan" tentara Amerika . Howe merasa malu dengan kekalahan di Trenton dan Princeton, tetapi tampaknya tidak belajar dari kecepatan dan fleksibilitas. Selama Pertempuran Saratoga pada tahun 1777, ia kembali tinggal di Philadelphia alih-alih bergabung dengan Jenderal Burgoyne. Kemenangan Kontinental di Saratoga mencapai aliansi dengan Prancis yang akan mengubah gelombang Revolusi. Howe dicopot dari komando pada 1778 dan Sir Henry Clinton menjadi panglima tertinggi.

Henry Knox: Knox akan menjabat sebagai Sekretaris Perang selama dua periode bahwa Washington menjabat sebagai presiden dan menjadi presiden Adams. Knox pertama kali menjadi perhatian Washington selama pengepungan Boston ketika dia menyarankan bahwa kekurangan artileri dapat diatasi dengan mengambil senjata dari benteng di dekat perbatasan Kanada. Dengan upaya luar biasa, Knox memuat 42 kereta luncur dengan meriam, howitzer, dan senjata dan membawanya ke garis Amerika pada bulan Desember. Knox diangkat menjadi brigadir jenderal dan menjadi teman dan penasihat Washington sepanjang sisa hidupnya.

Film ini membuat Washington membuat komentar yang tidak jelas tentang berat badan Knox saat naik perahu, dan Howard Fast, penulis skenarionya, mendapatkan informasi ini dari akun tentara yang ditulis lama setelah pertempuran. Apa yang Fast klaim Washington katakan, "kurang lebih" adalah: "Gerakkan pantatmu yang gemuk, Harry, tapi jangan membanjiri perahu sialan itu!" Fast percaya bahwa "bahasa selokan" sang jenderal membantu memecahkan ketegangan dan menyelamatkan hari. Lihat bilah sisi. Namun, empat bulan sebelum pertempuran, Washington telah mengeluarkan perintah kepada para perwiranya untuk memeriksa "praktik bodoh dan jahat, dari kutukan dan sumpah serapah," dengan alasan bahwa "kita dapat memiliki sedikit harapan akan berkat Surga di Lengan kita, jika kita menghinanya dengan ketidaksopanan dan kebodohan kita." Lihat Perintah Umum tentang Kata Tidak Senonoh, 3 Agustus 1776.

Apakah Washington membuat komentar kasar tentang berat badan Knox yang besar dan kuat malam itu, memang benar bahwa Knox gemuk, dan berhasil mempertahankan sebagian besar berat badannya bahkan melalui pengalaman di Valley Forge. Namun, kegunaannya dalam Pertempuran Trenton tidak dapat disangkal, bukan hanya karena dia mampu membawa semua artilerinya melintasi sungai dan kembali, tetapi juga karena dia berdiri di pantai selama berjam-jam, memanggil dengan suara bass yang dalam untuk memimpin. perahu menyeberang ke tempat pendaratan yang tepat. Knox pernah menjadi penjual buku di Boston saat pecahnya perang. Dia adalah contoh lain dari orang-orang yang naik di Angkatan Darat Kontinental berdasarkan prestasi daripada kelahiran.

    Lebih dari selusin orang, hadir atau dekat, menuliskan apa yang dia - penulis - rasakan sebagai kata-kata yang tepat dari sang jenderal, tetapi catatan sejarah ini terjadi berbulan-bulan atau bertahun-tahun kemudian. Sang jenderal, di zaman yang terkenal karena bahasanya yang lugas, memiliki kemampuan bahasa yang luar biasa dan apa pun kata-katanya yang tepat saat itu, itu menghancurkan orang-orang di dermaga. Sudah setengah histeris, tawa mereka menular. "Apa yang dia katakan? Apa yang dia katakan?" turun ke barisan orang-orang yang menunggu. Cerita tumbuh dalam penceritaan, dan para lelaki, basah, sengsara, putus asa, menjadi histeris dengan tawa.

Charles Lee: Jenderal Lee memandang rendah George Washington, berkomentar kepada Gates bahwa dia "sangat kekurangan" sebagai seorang pemimpin. Baik Gates dan Lee tidak tunduk pada Washington, dan setelah Fort Washington jatuh di New York, Lee menolak untuk menyeberangi Hudson untuk membantu. Seorang sejarawan menyarankan bahwa Lee "tampaknya sengaja meninggalkan Washington untuk menghadapi bencana total dan dengan demikian membuktikan ketidakmampuannya kemudian, sebagai jenderal yang tak terkalahkan, ia dapat mengambil alih komando." (George M. Salah, "George Washington and His Comrades in Arms" .)

Seperti yang ditunjukkan film itu, Lee berencana untuk mengabaikan perintah Washington untuk datang ke Delaware, tetapi takdir campur tangan. Komandan arogan itu jatuh ke dalam jebakan Inggris. Ditangkap di tempat tidur, Jenderal Lee "wajib menunggangi kuda dengan gaun malam dan sandal." Saat menghabiskan enam belas bulan dalam tahanan Inggris, Lee tampaknya mencoba menarik perhatian Inggris dalam rencananya untuk memaksa Amerika menyerah, suatu tindakan yang akan dipandang sebagai pengkhianatan ketika diketahui setelah perang. Lee dibebaskan dan sekali lagi ditempatkan sebagai komandan di Pertempuran Monmouth. George Washington memiliki temperamen yang berapi-api dan menjaganya tetap terkendali. Namun, ketika dia melihat Lee memimpin pasukannya mundur di Monmouth, dia berteriak dan mengutuknya sebelum melepaskannya dari komando.

Washington akhirnya muak dengan Lee, dan membuatnya diadili di pengadilan militer dan dipecat dari tentara karena pembangkangan dan pembangkangan. "The Crossing" mengacu pada Lee secara tidak langsung, karena Washington bertanya-tanya di mana pasukannya berada. Untungnya, ketika Lee ditangkap oleh Inggris, pasukannya digiring oleh Jenderal Sullivan ke Delaware dan ditempatkan di bawah kendali Washington. "The Crossing" memberikan kesan yang benar bahwa Washington tidak hanya menghadapi musuh Inggris dan Hessian, tetapi juga para jenderalnya sendiri yang membuat frustrasi dan mengabaikannya. Pertempuran Trenton, dan Pertempuran Princeton kurang dari seminggu kemudian, akhirnya memberi George Washington wewenang untuk benar-benar memimpin komandannya sendiri.

Untuk situs web tentang Charles Lee, lihat Charles Lee dari wikipedia.org

Hugh Mercer: Mercer memiliki masa lalu yang paling romantis dari teman dekat Washington selama penyeberangan Delaware. Lahir di Skotlandia, Mercer pernah menjadi dokter di pasukan "Bonnie Prince Charlie", Stuart yang berusaha merebut kembali takhta yang hilang dari kakeknya. Setelah kekalahan "Pretender", Mercer memutuskan untuk mencoba peruntungannya di Dunia Baru. Seperti Washington, Mercer bersama Jenderal Braddock mengalami kekalahan mengerikan pada tahun 1755 selama Perang Prancis dan India. Pada usia tiga puluh lima, dia meninggalkan militer dan menjadi dokter di kampung halaman Washington di Fredericksburg, Virginia. Salah satu pasiennya adalah Mary Washington, ibu dari George Washington. Mercer bergabung dengan revolusi pada 1775 dan bertugas di sisi Washington. Dia adalah salah satu dari sedikit korban Kontinental dalam Pertempuran Princeton. Dikepung, Mercer menolak untuk menyerah dan ditusuk belasan kali. Dia meninggal karena luka-lukanya dua minggu kemudian. Keadaan kematiannya membuatnya menjadi martir untuk kemerdekaan Amerika. County dinamai untuk menghormatinya di New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, dan Illinois.

Untuk situs web di Hugh Mercer, lihat Hugh Mercer dari HistoryPoint.org.

Kolonel Johann Rall (kadang-kadang ditulis Rahl): Perwira tentara bayaran Hessian ini membuktikan anugerah bagi Kontinental dan bencana bagi pasukan yang dia perintahkan. Meskipun dia telah diperingatkan bahwa "Rubah Tua", seperti julukan Washington karena kelicikannya melarikan diri dalam menghadapi kekalahan, mampu dengan cepat dan berani, Rall mengabaikan untuk memperkuat area di sekitar Trenton dari serangan.

Ketika dia didesak untuk menyebutkan tempat untuk evakuasi bagasi jika Kontinental menyerang, dia mencemooh: "Fiddlesticks! Para clod-hopper ini tidak akan menyerang kita, dan jika mereka melakukannya, kita akan menjatuhkan mereka dan mengalahkan mereka! " Jika orang Amerika menyeberangi sungai, "Biarkan mereka datang! Kami tidak menginginkan parit! Kami akan menggunakan bayonet!" Orang-orang Hessian berjuang untuk mendapatkan bayaran, bukan kesetiaan atau idealisme, dan mereka telah menjarah warga New York, Pennsylvania, dan New Jersey dengan begitu teliti sehingga bahkan para Loyalis pun membenci mereka. Di Trenton, ketika Continentals menyerang, beberapa warga mengambil senjata api mereka dan bergabung dalam perang melawan penjajah yang telah membakar perabotan mereka daripada memaksakan diri untuk menebang kayu. Kolonel Rall, terbunuh dalam aksi di Pertempuran Trenton, membayar arogansinya dengan nyawanya.

John Sullivan: menjabat sebagai perwakilan dari New Hampshire di Kongres Kontinental Kedua dan telah bersama Washington selama pengepungan Boston. Setelah kampanye mati-matian berjuang di Kanada, dan kekalahan Tentara Kontinental di New York, Sullivan ditangkap oleh Inggris dan ditukar tepat pada waktunya untuk berperang di Pertempuran Trenton. George Washington menugaskannya untuk memimpin separuh pasukan yang menyeberang di McConkey's Tavern. Film ini benar ketika Sullivan mengirim kabar ke Washington bahwa senapan tidak akan menembak karena lembab dan hujan es, Washington memerintahkan: "Beri tahu Jenderal Sullivan untuk menggunakan bayonet. Saya memutuskan untuk mengambil Trenton."

Sullivan bertindak dengan berani hari itu dan dalam Pertempuran Princeton berikutnya. Namun, seperti Gates dan Lee, Sullivan pergi ke Washington untuk mengeluh kepada Kongres bahwa dia tidak memberinya promosi yang layak. Pada tahun 1777, Washington menulis: "Tidak ada perwira lain di seluruh angkatan darat yang begitu sering menganggap dirinya diabaikan, diremehkan, dan diperlakukan dengan buruk seperti yang telah Anda lakukan, dan saya yakin tidak ada yang memiliki alasan yang lebih kecil daripada Anda sendiri untuk menerima gagasan seperti itu." Setelah serangkaian kekalahan, Sullivan meninggalkan tentara dan kembali ke New Hampshire, menjadi anggota Kongres pertama dan kemudian gubernur negara bagian.

Untuk situs web tentang John Sullivan, lihat Pembingkai Kebebasan, John Sullivan.

KETIDAKAKURATAN FAKtual

Ada sejumlah besar ketidakakuratan sejarah dalam film, namun poin utama dan kesan umum yang disampaikan oleh film ini akurat. Kesalahan terbesar adalah bahwa ia memainkan tingkat keparahan cuaca. Washington dan Continentals menyeberangi sungai, berbaris 9 mil ke Trenton dan menyerang Hessians dalam badai salju yang sebenarnya. Satu-satunya kematian Amerika terjadi ketika dua tentara mati kedinginan. The decision to cross back over the Delaware was not only due to fear of the British but the American soldiers had broken into hogsheads of rum and were getting drunk. Washington feared he would lose control of his men. Before the attack on Trenton, Washington divided his army into three parts. Washington kept command of roughly one third of the army. The other two parts, led by Generals Ewell and Cadwalader, were to cross the river from different landing sites. Lacking the Marbleheaders, they didn't make it to the other side in time to join in the battle.

In the movie, Washington is told that no Continentals were killed and none wounded in the battle. It is correct that there were no deaths in the battle itself (two soldiers froze to death on the march to Trenton), but a few officers and soldiers were wounded. Hamilton did not become Washington's secretary until later in the war. He did not participate in the attack on the Hessian outpost. However, the close relationship between Washington and Hamilton, with Washington taking a paternal role, is accurate. The screenwriter departed from the historical record to show this relationship. Washington's interview with General Gates was private, not at dinner with Washington's staff in attendance. No one knows what was said in the interview. The screenwriter used the dinner scene to show Gates' contempt for Washington and to present the arguments against the attack.

Perhaps the most objectionable historical inaccuracy is Nathaniel Greene's statement to Washington that the American colonists were fighting primarily for economic reasons. After the battle, General Greene asks General Washington to speak with Colonel Rall before Rall dies. This requests sets up the following exchange: Washington: "Do you want me to weep for those bastards, men who kill for profit?" Greene: "Our own cause at its heart is a fight against taxation is it not? In the end, we all kill for profit, the British and the Hessians and us." This is an inaccurate and cynical view of the American Revolution. The rallying cry of the revolution was "No taxation tanpa representation." The tea tax, for example, that sparked the Boston Tea Party was a very small tax. The noble and revolutionary sentiments that " . all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. " are not based primarily on a desire for monetary gain.


Portrait of Washington by Gilbert Stuart (c. 1795-96)

Gates County

Gates County was formed in 1779 from Chowan, Hertford, and Perquimans counties. It was named in honor of General Horatio Gates, who commanded the American Army at the Battle of Saratoga. Gates County is in the northeastern section of the State and is bounded by Camden, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan and Hertford counties, and the state of Virginia. The present land area is 340.67 square miles. The act establishing the county provided that commissioners be appointed to select a site centrally located for the erection of a courthouse, etc., and to have the building erected. In 1781, an act was passed to levy an additional tax for the completion of the public buildings. The Legislature of 1830-1831 passed an act which said that the place now known as Gates Court House, in the county of Gates, shall in the future be known and described by the name of Gatesville. Gatesville is the county seat.

Gates County was a part of an area originally called "Albemarle", named for George, Duke of Albemarle. Later, what is now Gates County was split into three separate entities: Hertford, Chowan, and Perquimans counties. Most of the land within the present boundaries was considered to be Nansemond County, VA, until 1728, when William Byrd had surveyed the "dividing line" between Virginia and North Carolina.

The area was in controversy between the two States until then, and both granted land to applicants. It was Chowan County, and a narrow strip of Perquimans, until 1759, when all the area west of Bennett's Creek was cut off to Hertford County.

Before the settlement of this area by the Europeans, the Nansemond, Chesapeake, Chowanoc/Chowanoke, Meherrin and the Nottoway Indians made their homes here. They were a peaceful people, but once the settlers made their way into the area, unfortunately their days were numbered. After 1711, few Native Americans were found in the county, although there is a large population of Meherrins living in Hertford, Bertie, Gates, and Northhampton counties. It is not uncommon to find traces of these gentle people left behind in the fields of the county. Arrowheads and pottery shards are often found in open fields and along riverbanks.

In the early years of settlement, pioneers had to try to make a living off of land that was riddled with swamps and sandy soil that would not produce. The landscape made many pass in areas further south where land was richer, and had fewer wetlands. Those who stayed behind were a strong and resourceful lot.

The descendants of many of those persevering and strong of the difficult life, those who passed through knew them as friendly and hospitable people.

Many of the surnames represented in the county today originated from some of the earliest pioneers. Names like Brinkley, Eure, Riddick, Benton, Lane, Cowper, Cross and Norfleet, among many others, were the same names that George Washington and other notable Americans were familiar with when they passed through the area in the early days of this area's history.

From 1728 through 1780, the area grew from a thick wooded and inhospitable land to an agrarian community with many of the same resources that many surrounding areas had. However, the physical characteristics made it difficult to grow into a prosperous urban center, because there were few navigable waterways.

The main commerce was in hogs sold in Nansemond Co., tar (pine pitch) made from the pine forests of the county, and timber from the thick virgin forests.

In 1779 the area between the Chowan River to the West and Southwest, South of the county of Nansemond, Va., West of the Dismal Swamp and North of Catherine Creek and Warwick Creek was separated into a county all it's own. The physical land barriers of swamps or rivers made it difficult for residents of this area to travel to government seats in bad weather, and it was for this reason, among others that Gates County became an entity of it's own.

Gates County was named for General Horatio Gates, a Revolutionary War hero. As commanding general at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, he delivered one of the most damaging blows yet felt by English forces in the war. However, in 1780 his failure at the disastrous Battle of Camden transformed him from one of the Revolution's most esteemed soldiers into one of its most controversial.

In 1780 a courthouse, prison and stocks were built in Gatesville, at that time known as Gates Court House.

In 1830-1831 the Legislature passed an act, which changed the name of the county seat from Gates Court House to Gatesville. In 1836 the Federal style courthouse was built, which now houses the Gates County Public Library and the Gates County Historical Society.

General William P. Roberts, who at age 20 was the Confederate's youngest Brigadier General, was born in Gates County July 11, 1841. He commanded the N.C Cavalry, 12th NC Battalion, Georgia Battalion, Gen W.H.F. Lee's Division, and Hampton's Cavalry Corps Army of Northern Virginia. In 1875 he represented Gates County at the constitutional convention, and the following year he was elected to the state legislature. In 1880, he became a state auditor and served in that capacity until 1888. Roberts died in Norfolk, Virginia, on March 28, 1910, and was buried in the Gatesville Cemetery.

In the last quarter of the 19th century, the railroad opened Gates County to new opportunity. Shipment by rail was more efficient and allowed logging operations to move timber cheaply to markets, farmers to ship produce more readily and small towns to burgeon into prosperous communities. It remained this way until the railroads stopped running through the county in 1979, after highways made truck shipment cheaper than the rails.

Gates County has remained close to the same since it was formed in 1778. Other than obvious changes in technology, Gates still relies on the agriculture and timber industry more than any other commercial enterprise. Six of the nine largest manufacturers in the county all rely on the timber businesses, while the majority of jobs are in agriculture.

Many things haven't changed much since the late 18th century. The county's population hasn't even doubled in over 200 years. In 1790 there were 5,372 people living here as compared to the 10,720 of the year 2002. That only adds to the small town feeling of this tight knit community, and the hospitality of the early pioneers is still present in the current residents, as is the resilience and perseverance of their forebears.

*If you happen to get the chance to visit Gates County, be ready to be spoken to, greeted on the street, and have people wave at you who you don't even know. The pace of life here is slow so don't rush through. Take the time to stop and talk to the people, have a bar-b-que sandwich and soda at one of the family restaurants.

Hang out for a while at the hardware store, or just generally stop and smell the flowers. Chances are you'll never want to leave, just like the first people who settled here.


Titik balik

In the aftermath of the Battle of Bemis Heights, some 20,000 American soldiers surrounded Burgoyne’s remaining 5,000 Redcoats at Saratoga. With supplies dwindling, Burgoyne surrendered his forces on October 17. Collectively, the two Battles of Saratoga were seen as a crucial turning point in the Revolutionary War. As a result of the victory, France officially recognized the cause of American independence and began to openly give military assistance to the rebels.

After the crushing defeat at Saratoga, Burgoyne returned to Britain, and was never given another command. Howe’s forces occupied Philadelphia but failed to deliver a crushing blow against Washington’s troops, who then spent a hard winter at Valley Forge. France officially declared war on Britain in June 1778, and in the fall of 1781, Washington’s Continental Army and French soldiers commanded by General Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau moved against British forces at Yorktown, Virginia a fleet of 36 French warships offshore prevented British reinforcement or evacuation. Britain’s Lord Charles Cornwallis was forced to surrender his entire army, effectively marking the end of the Revolutionary War (though fighting did not officially end until 1783).


THE SOUTHERN COMMAND

In the summer of 1780, Gates was ordered by Congress to take command of the Southern Department, after Benjamin Lincoln had surrendered Charleston to the enemy on 12 May. Although he was not optimistic about his chances against surging British military power in the south, he assumed command of a small army at Coxe's Mill on 25 July. Marching immediately against an enemy garrison at Camden, he directed his army through country barren of provisions, instead of taking a more distant line of advance through country abounding with supplies. Gates's haste seemed to violate his own precepts about careful, defensive warfare, but he had his reasons. He wanted to maneuver his army into a defensive position just north of Camden, which he would fortify, and compel the British army, led by General Lord Charles Cornwallis, to assault at a disadvantage. Unfortunately for him, as he marched his army southward on the night of 15 August toward Camden, he encountered Cornwallis's army marching northward toward him. Forced to deploy his soldiers in the open, Gates hoped that his army of 3,050 men would overwhelm Cornwallis's force of 2,100 soldiers.

In the battle of Camden, on 16 August, Gates commenced the battle by ordering untrained militiamen on his left to charge against veteran British regulars. Soon that entire part of his battle line collapsed, leaving the Continental regulars on his right, commanded by Johann de Kalb, facing most of Cornwallis's army. Gates was forced off the field by his panicky militiamen, and even though his regulars were still fighting, he rode toward Hillsborough, North Carolina, to rally his forces and reorganize. Meanwhile, de Kalb was killed and the Continentals also disintegrated into a retreating mob. Gates's defeat at Camden and his unfortunate gallop northward destroyed his military reputation, and his political foes never allowed him to forget his poor performance at Camden. In the next three months, as he worked diligently to get his army back into fighting form, Congress debated his future. During that time he learned the devastating news that his son, Robert, was dead at the age of twenty-two. On 5 October Congress voted to order a court of inquiry into the general's conduct at Camden, and to allow Washington to appoint another officer to take his place. Washington immediately appointed Nathanael Greene, who superseded Gates on 2 December. The American army then numbered 1,804 men, and according to Banastre Tarleton, a British cavalryman, presented a tolerable appearance.

For almost two years after his defeat in the south, Gates labored to restore his military reputation, while his political enemies allowed him to languish in forced retirement at Traveller's Rest. The court of inquiry was never convened, and it was not until 14 August 1782, months after the War for America had begun to wind down, that Congress finally voted unanimously to rescind its resolution and invite Gates to rejoin the army. On 5 October he reached the army's final cantonment at Newburg, New York, where he was greeted by his nemesis, Washington. According to observers, their meeting passed with perfect propriety on the part of both men. Gates was placed in command of the right wing of the army, composed of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut troops. During the winter of 1782–1783, he played an important role in mobilizing officer discontents against Congress, sometimes called the Newburgh Conspiracy. He was particularly disgusted that the officers had not received their pay. Nationalists in Congress apparently tried to use these discontents to increase the authority of the national government. Gates refused to be their tool his only aim was to secure justice for his fellow officers. When Washington suppressed the discontents, for fear that they might lead to an army mutiny, Gates acquiesced.


Perang Revolusi Amerika

At the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War Gates rode to Mount Vernon and gave his support to Washington. Washington would appeal to Congress to make Gates an Adjutant General of the newly formed Continental Army. He, along with Charles Lee, would be the only two commanders with significant experience in the British Army.

Gates was a valuable resource in the beginning stages of the army. He was an excellent administrator and organized the army&rsquos system of records as well as standardizing the regiments of the various colonies.

He had a great understanding of how a professional army should appear as well as run on the back-end.

During the Siege of Boston, he became a voice of caution and warned the commanders not to take unnecessary risks. In June of 1776 Gates was promoted to Major General and given command of the Canadian department.

The Canadian Department of the Army was in retreat from their assault on Quebec. Leading the retreat back to Fort Ticonderoga was Benedict Arnold.

The rest of the Summer was spent overseeing an American Fleet for the defense of Fort Ticonderoga and Lake Champlain. With this, he placed Benedict Arnold in charge who had experience as a seaman. This fleet would engage the British in the Battle of Valcour Island, which the British won. The attack did delay Burgoyne&rsquos Northern Invasion.

Just before the Battle of Trenton, Gates advised Washington to not attack the Hessians. When Washington dismissed his advice he claimed he was sick and could not take part in the stealth attack. Instead, he rode to Baltimore, Maryland where Congress was meeting.

Gates believed that he should be the Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and not Washington. He was highly critical of the General and believed him to be incompetent when it came to the military. There were many men in Congress that supported his claim, one of the most notable men that supported him was Benjamin Rush.

While in Baltimore, Congress received news that Washington had won in Trenton and Princeton. This victory cemented Washington as the General of the Continental Army. Gates would have to wait another day.

Gates avoided responsibility when it was his fault and take credit when it was not his accomplishment. This is seen when Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga. Although Gates was in charge for most of the time, General Schuyler took the blame. He would conversely do this in Saratoga.

Gates took control of the Northern Army in August of 1777. He would be the commanding officer in the Battle of Saratoga. He received the credit for the victory, however Benedict Arnold, Daniel Morgan, Enoch Poor, Benjamin Lincoln, and John Stark deserve the most credit. Nevertheless, the Battle of Saratoga gave Benjamin Franklin the influence he needed to secure a French alliance.

With his success in the Saratoga campaign Gates once again tried to turn Congress against Washington who was having little success in his campaigns. Gates began to insult Washington by sending reports directly to Congress instead of Washington, who was his superior officer.

Congress did not reprimand him and soon, with influence from many of his New England supporters, was appointed as head of the Board of War. This was an unprecedented conflict of interest as it made Gates, Washington&rsquos civilian superior. During this time, some in Congress wanted to replace Washington with Horatio Gates.

Washington learned of Gates&rsquo plot through a letter. Gates adjutant James Wilkinson forwarded a critical letter of Washington from General Thomas Conway to General William Alexander. Alexander then forwarded it to Washington. The President of Congress, Henry Laurens, saw the letter and exposed the Conway Cabal to Congress.

Washington&rsquos supporters rushed to his side. Gates apologized to Washington, resigned from the Board of War and took command of the Southern Army. He and Washington&rsquos relationship deteriorated.

Gates took command of the Southern Army and fought General Cornwallis at the Battle of Camden. The Battle was a route and Gates fled the field in disgrace. He would be court-martialed and relieved of his command. His successor was Nathanael Greene whom Washington chose. His only accomplishment in the Southern Campaign was to cover 170 miles in 3 days on horseback.

Gates son died in 1780 and his wife passed away in 1783. For the ambitious and arrogant Gates, the war had left his life a mess.


The Society for Military History

Roger Reese is associate professor of history at Texas A&M University. His research and publishing specialties are Soviet social and military history, particularly of the Stalin era. Dia adalah penulis Stalin's Reluctant Soldiers: A Social History of the Red Army, 1925-1941 (1996) dan The Soviet Military Experience: A History of the Soviet Army, 1917-1991 (2000).

Film Enemy at the Gates, directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud and starring Jude Law, Ed Harris, Rachel Weisz and Joseph Fiennes is a fictionalized account of the true story of Vasilii Zaitsev, a Soviet sniper who won fame during the battle of Stalingrad. The action in the movie revolves around the duel between Zaitsev and a German sniper sent out to eliminate him. In the process the director uses the battle of Stalingrad to illustrate the horrors of the Nazi-Soviet conflict primarily from the view of the Soviet soldier which of itself is a useful corrective to the overwhelmingly German perspective of the Russo-German conflict in both film and print.

In the beginning of the movie Zaitsev is in a boxcar crowded with soldiers who are disgorged amidst great confusion and disorganization on the east bank of the Volga, rushed like cattle onto boats for a daylight trip across the river to reinforce the units in the city proper. The river crossing is a hellish scene as the boats are bombed and strafed by German dive bombers with graphically portrayed loss of life of Soviet soldiers and may have been inspired by a passage from Konstantin Simonov's novel Days and Nights. Once the men reach the far shore the scene becomes even more confused as the men are rushed straight into battle after a small number of them are given rifles and the rest one clip of ammunition with instructions for the unarmed to pick up the rifles of the fallen - this perhaps inspired by Gabriel Temkin's My Just War: the Memoir of a Jewish Red Army Soldier in World War II. The attack is an unmitigated disaster as the new men are mowed down by German soldiers. When the attack falters and men begin to retreat an NKVD "blocking detachment" machine guns them until there are no apparent survivors. All the while political officers are exhorting the men to do their utmost for Stalin and the motherland, shouting through megaphones, which adds a surreal quality to the feeling of chaos. Zaitsev, of course, survives this attack by laying in a pile of corpses right under the Germans' noses.

Subsequently a political officer is introduced into the story. He takes it upon himself to manipulate Zaitsev and his sharpshooting skills to elevate himself in the eyes of his political superiors. Soon thereafter a female soldier enters the picture and becomes the love interest of both men. At the end of the movie (and in real life) Zaitsev gets the best of the German.

What those unfamiliar with the Soviet side of Second World War will learn from this movie is that the director got many aspects correct in a general sense. Men were often thrown into combat from the march with little or no orientation to the combat situation or formal integration into an established unit and that attacks made under such circumstances usually failed with catastrophic loss of life. They will learn that snipers were regularly employed in large numbers, both male and female, and were highly productive and well regarded during the war. They will learn that junior ranking political officers served in the front lines and suffered the same fate as officers and men. That women served alongside men at the front and did become entangled in romantic relationships is also accurate. Also true was the use of blocking detachments of troops of the Peoples' Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD) to shoot soldiers retreating without authorization.

On the other hand, this movie gets some things wrong. The director has Nikita Khrushchev in charge of the battle from a bunker in Stalingrad. True, Khrushchev was on the military soviet of the Stalingrad Front, but he did not play a prominent role in orchestrating the battle in fact once the front headquarters came under German fire in the early phases of the battle Khrushchev personally begged Stalin for permission to evacuate the headquarters to the far side of the Volga. There is no mention of Marshal Yeremenko who did command the front or of General Chuikov who directed the 62nd Army in the battle for Stalingrad. Other than a fictitious general who commits suicide in the beginning of the movie under pressure from Khrushchev, the military chain of command does not exist in the movie. There were no sergeants or officers to receive the men when they got off the boats nor to lead them into battle. Zaitsev seems to operate with no supervision other than that of the political officer. This is seriously inaccurate. One also may wonder why although we are given two women snipers, they never shoot anyone, whereas in fact Soviet women snipers are credited with over ten thousand enemy killed. The movie erroneously credits the political officer with coming up with the idea to stop using punitive measures against defeated and demoralized Soviet soldiers and instead creating heroes for them to give them hope. The army had begun promoting heroes as role models in the first week of the war, and although NKVD blocking detachments had existed from the beginning of the war, only in August 1942, weeks before the battle for Stalingrad began, did Stalin issue the highly unpopular Order no. 227 for "not one step backward" requiring the army to form its own blocking detachments in each regiment.

As for Zaitsev himself we do not learn as much about him as is warranted for the protagonist of a film. Other than for his skill as a marksman he remains as devoid of individuality as the average Russian soldier depicted in our histories of the war in the east. He is portrayed as a callow young man, though he was older than average, being born to a peasant family in March 1915 making him 27 years old during the battle. He had been serving in the Navy since 1936, held the rank of Junior Lieutenant, was a candidate member of the Communist Party, and had volunteered to go to Stalingrad from his post in the Pacific fleet in October 1942 along with several thousand others. Of them only a few dozen would survive. Zaitsev is credited with 225 kills during the battle and for his efforts he was made a Hero of the Soviet Union, their highest military honor.

As a work of fictionalized history this movie serves a useful purpose beyond entertainment, that of bringing to the attention of movie-goers in the West the sacrifices Soviet soldiers made in defending their country and defeating Hitler and giving a face to those legions still largely anonymous to us.


Surrender of Burgoyne's Army to Gates at Saratoga

"Surrender of General Burgoyne," painted by John Trumbull in 1821. This scene depicts General John Burgoyne surrenders to American General Horatio Gates at Saratoga on October 17, 1777.

These articles detail the terms under which British Lt. Gen. John Burgoyne surrendered to Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates after the Battles of Saratoga.

Article I. The troops under Lieutenant-general Burgoyne, to march out of their camp with the honours of war, and the artillery of the entrenchments, to the verge of the river where the old fort stood, where the arms and artillery are to be left the arms to be piled by word of command from their own officers.

Article II. A free passage to be granted to the army under Lieutenant-general Burgoyne to Great Britain, on condition of not serving again in North America during the present contest and the port of Boston is assigned for the entry of transports to receive the troops, whenever General Howe shall so order.

Pasal III. Should any cartel take place, by which the army under General Burgoyne, or any part of it, may be exchanged, the foregoing article to be void as far as such exchange shall be made.

Article IV. The army under Lieutenant-general Burgoyne, to march to Massachusetts Bay, by the easiest, most expeditious, and convenient route and to be quartered in, near, or as covenient as possible to Boston, that the march of the troops may not be delayed, when transports arrive to receive them.

Article V. The troops to be supplied on their march, and during their being in quarters, with provisions, by General Gates's orders, at the same rate of rations as the troops of his own army and if possible the officers' horses and cattle are to be supplied with forage at the usual rates.

Article VI. All officers to retain their carriages, batt-horses and other cattle, and no baggage to be molested or searched Lieutenant-general Burgoyne giving his honour that there are no public stores secreted therein. Major-general Gates will of course take the necessary measures for the due performance of this article. Should any carriages be wanted during the march for the transportation of officers' baggage, they are if possible, to be supplied by the country at the usual rates.

Article VII. Upon the march, and during the time the army shall remain in quarters in Massachusetts Bay, the officers are not, as far as circumstances will admit, to be separated from their men. The officers are to be quartered according to rank, and are not to be hindered from assembling their men for roll call, and other necessary purposes of regularity.

Article VIII. All corps whatever, of General Burgoyne's army, whether composed of sailors, batteaumen, artificers, drivers, independent companies, and followers of the army, of whatever country, shall be included in the fullest sense and utmost extent of the above articles, and comprehended in every respect as British subjects.

Article IX. All Canadians, and persons belonging to the Canadian establishment, consisting of sailors, batteaumen, artificers, drivers, independent companies, and many other followers of the army, who come under no particular description, are to be permitted to return there they are to be conducted immediately by the shortest route to the first British port on Lake George, are to be supplied with provisions in the same manner as other troops, and are to be bound by the same condition of not serving during the present contest in North America.

Article X. Passports to be immediately greanted for three officers, not exceeding the rank of captains, who shall be appointed by Lieutenat-general Burgoyne, to carry despatches to Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton, and to Great Britain, by the way of New York and Major-general Gates engages the public faith, that these despatches shall not be opened. These officers are to set out immediately after receiving their despatches, and are to travel the shortest route and in the most expeditious manner.

Article XI. During the stay of the troops in Massachusetts Bay, the officers are to be admitted on parole, and are to be allowed to wear their side arms.

Article XII. Should the army under Lieutenant-general Burgoyne find it necessary to send for their clothing and other baggage to Canada, they are to be permited to do it in the most convenient manner, and the necessary passports granted for that purpose.

Article XIII. These articles are to be mutually signed and exchanged to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock, and the troops under Lieutenant-general Burgoyne are to march out of their entrenchments at three o'clock in the afternoon.

[signed] Horatio Gates, Major-general

[signed] J. Burgoyne, Lieutenant-general

To prevent any doubts that might arise from Lieutenant-general Burgoyne's name not being mentioned in the above treaty, Major-general Gates hereby declares, that he is understood to be comprehended in it, as fully as if his name had been specifically mentioned.


Founding Microsoft

In 1975, Gates and Allen formed Micro-Soft, a blend of "micro-computer" and "software" (they dropped the hyphen within a year). The company&aposs first product was BASIC software that ran on the Altair computer.

At first, all was not smooth sailing. Although Microsoft’s BASIC software program for the Altair computer netted the company a fee and royalties, it wasn&apost meeting their overhead. According to Gates&apos later account, only about 10 percent of the people using BASIC in the Altair computer had actually paid for it.

Microsoft&aposs BASIC software was popular with computer hobbyists, who obtained pre-market copies and were reproducing and distributing them for free. At this time, many personal computer enthusiasts were not in it for the money. They felt the ease of reproduction and distribution allowed them to share software with friends and fellow computer enthusiasts. Gates thought differently. He saw the free distribution of software as stealing, especially when it involved software that was created to be sold.

In February 1976, Gates wrote an open letter to computer hobbyists, saying that continued distribution and use of software without paying for it would "prevent good software from being written." In essence, pirating software would discourage developers from investing time and money into creating quality software. The letter was unpopular with computer enthusiasts, but Gates stuck to his beliefs and would use the threat of innovation as a defense when faced with charges of unfair business practices.

Gates had an acrimonious relationship with MITS president Ed Roberts, often resulting in shouting matches. The combative Gates clashed with Roberts on software development and the direction of the business. Roberts considered Gates spoiled and obnoxious. 

In 1977, Roberts sold MITS to another computer company and went back to Georgia to enter medical school and become a doctor.

Gates and Allen were on their own. The pair had to sue the new owner of MITS to retain the software rights they had developed for Altair. Microsoft wrote software in different formats for other computer companies, and, at the beginning of 1979, Gates moved the company&aposs operations to Bellevue, Washington, just east of Seattle.

Gates was glad to be home again in the Pacific Northwest and threw himself into his work. All 25 employees of the young company had broad responsibilities for all aspects of the operation, product development, business development and marketing.

Although the company started out on shaky footing, by 1979 Microsoft was grossing approximately $2.5 million. At the age of 23, Gates placed himself as the head of the company. With his acumen for software development and a keen business sense, he led the company and worked as its spokesperson. Gates personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped, often rewriting code himself when he saw it necessary.


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