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Lilith: Istri Pertama Adam di Eden atau Iblis Iblis?

Lilith: Istri Pertama Adam di Eden atau Iblis Iblis?


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Lilith pertama kali disebutkan dalam teks Babilonia kuno sebagai iblis wanita bersayap yang menyerang wanita hamil dan bayi. Dari Babilonia, legenda "lilit" menyebar ke Anatolia kuno, Suriah, Israel, Mesir, dan Yunani. Dalam penyamaran ini—sebagai iblis wanita hutan belantara—dia muncul dalam Yesaya 34:14 di antara daftar makhluk nokturnal yang akan menghantui Kerajaan Edom yang hancur. Ini adalah satu-satunya penyebutannya dalam Alkitab, tetapi legendanya terus berkembang dalam Yudaisme kuno.

Selama Abad Pertengahan, sumber-sumber Yahudi mulai mengklaimnya sebagai istri pertama Adam yang berani dan mandiri. Bagaimana Lilith berevolusi dari iblis wanita hutan belantara menjadi istri pertama Adam?

Dimana Kisah Lilith Dimulai

Cerita dimulai dari awal—dalam Kejadian 1. Penciptaan manusia dijelaskan dalam Kejadian 1 dan sekali lagi dalam Kejadian 2. Kisah pertama cukup sederhana: “Maka Allah menciptakan manusia menurut gambar-Nya, menurut gambar Allah diciptakan-Nya mereka ; laki-laki dan perempuan diciptakan-Nya mereka.” (Kejadian 1:27).

Kisah kedua menjelaskan bagaimana Tuhan membentuk laki-laki dari debu tanah dan kemudian menciptakan perempuan dari sisi (bukan tulang rusuk) laki-laki: “Kemudian Tuhan Allah membentuk manusia dari debu tanah dan menghembuskan nafas ke dalam hidungnya. kehidupan; dan pria itu menjadi makhluk hidup. … Jadi, Tuhan Allah menyebabkan orang itu tertidur lelap dan dia tertidur. Kemudian Dia (mengambil) dari sisinya dan menutup tempatnya dengan daging; dan (dari) lambung yang diambil Tuhan Allah dari laki-laki itu, dijadikan-Nya perempuan dan dibawa-Nya kepada laki-laki itu” (Kejadian 2:7, 21-22).

Penciptaan Hawa dari langit-langit Kapel Sistina oleh Michelangelo. (Sailko / Domain Publik )

Pada periode pasca-Alkitab, beberapa sarjana Yahudi kuno mengambil sikap bahwa Kejadian 1:27 dan Kejadian 2:21-22 menggambarkan dua peristiwa yang terpisah, karena tampaknya perempuan diciptakan secara berbeda dalam dua kisah ini.

Apakah Istri Pertama Lilith Adam?

Dalam artikel Bible Review-nya “Lilith” dalam edisi Oktober 2001, Profesor Janet Howe Gaines menjelaskan alasan ini: Mengingat setiap kata dalam Alkitab akurat dan suci, para komentator membutuhkan midrash [interpretasi yang luas] untuk menjelaskan dua pandangan yang berbeda dalam dua narasi penciptaan Taurat. Tuhan menciptakan wanita dua kali—sekali dengan pria, sekali dari sisi pria; jadi pasti ada dua wanita yang berbeda.

Karena Adam menamai Hawa perempuan kedua; Lilith diidentifikasi sebagai wanita pertama untuk menyelesaikan narasi. Jadi, Kejadian 1:27 menggambarkan penciptaan Adam dan seorang wanita yang mandiri, kuat, tanpa nama (Lilith).

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Lilit oleh John Collier pada tahun 1887. (Conscious / Public Domain)

Detail penciptaan dan hubungan Lilith dengan Adam, diceritakan dalam The Book of Ben Sira, sebuah karya apokrif dari abad kesepuluh SM, Dan Ben-Amos menjelaskan bahwa meskipun ini adalah teks pertama yang mencatat legenda lengkap Lilith, dia cerita sudah ada jauh sebelumnya.

Pada periode pasca-Alkitab, orang bijak rabbi mengidentifikasi Lilith beberapa kali dengan judul "Malam Pertama", yang menunjukkan bahwa kisah lengkapnya terkenal dalam tradisi lisan. Akhirnya, pada abad kesepuluh SM di Babel, seorang penulis anonim yang memasukkan dalam bukunya beberapa kisah seksual eksplisit lainnya, menguraikan perilaku berani Lilith.

Bagaimana Lilith Berbeda Dari Hawa?

The Tales of Ben Sira menceritakan bahwa Tuhan menciptakan Lilith dari bumi, sama seperti dia telah menciptakan Adam. Mereka segera mulai berkelahi karena Adam selalu ingin berada di atas Lilith dan tidak akan pernah setuju untuk mengabdi di bawah Lilith.

Menyadari bahwa Adam tidak akan menyerah padanya, Lilith “mengucapkan Nama yang Tak Terlukiskan dan terbang ke udara” (The Tales of Ben Sira). Tiga malaikat Snvi, Snsvi, dan Smnglof dikirim untuk mengejar Lilith tetapi dia dengan keras menolak untuk kembali bersama mereka ke Taman Eden.

Tekad Lilith

"'Tinggalkan aku!' Kata Lilith. 'Aku diciptakan hanya untuk menyebabkan penyakit pada bayi. Jika bayinya laki-laki, saya berkuasa atas dia selama delapan hari setelah kelahirannya [sampai sunatnya pada hari ke-8 setelah kelahirannya melindunginya], dan jika perempuan, selama dua puluh hari'” (The Tales of Ben Sira).

Adam mencengkeram seorang anak di hadapan perampas anak Lilith. (Andreagrossmann / Domain Publik )

Sebagai kompromi, Lilith berjanji bahwa jika dia melihat nama atau bentuk malaikat pada jimat, dia akan meninggalkan anak itu sendirian. Lilith juga setuju bahwa 100 anaknya—setan—akan mati setiap hari, tetapi dia dengan tegas menegaskan sisanya akan hidup.

Jika pria pertama hanya setuju untuk melayani di bawah paruh waktu wanita pertama (hanya itu yang dia minta darinya) Lilith akan menjadi Hawa: Lebih baik tinggal di luar taman dengan Hawa daripada di dalam tanpa dia. Terberkatilah Dia yang mempertemukan kita dan mengajariku untuk mengetahui kebaikan hatinya dan manisnya jiwanya! “Di mana pun dia berada, di situ ada Eden.” (Diadaptasi dari Mark Twain)

Kejatuhan Manusia. (JarektUploadBot / Domain Publik)


Kebenaran Tak Terungkap Dari Lilith

Jika Anda adalah tipe orang yang menyenangi media seram, entah itu film, TV, buku, komik, atau video game, ada kemungkinan Anda akan menjumpai sosok Lilith. Tergantung pada sumbernya, Anda mungkin mengenalnya sebagai istri pertama Adam yang sebenarnya yang mendahului Hawa, atau mungkin sebagai vampir pertama, atau succubus yang memberikan mimpi seksi kepada pria. Di dalam Petualangan Dingin Sabrina, dia Selir Setan yang menyamar sebagai guru sekolah menengah vampir. Jika Anda orang Yahudi, Anda mungkin menganggapnya sebagai iblis wanita yang memakan bayi. Bagi orang lain, dia mungkin simbol kewanitaan yang tertindas, atau bahkan seorang dewi.

Tapi yang mungkin tidak Anda ketahui adalah dari mana dia berasal. Mungkin mudah untuk berasumsi bahwa dia berasal dari Alkitab, karena dia dikenal sebagai istri pertama Adam, dan Adam jelas berasal dari Alkitab. Jika itu masalahnya, mungkin Anda akan terkejut mengetahui bahwa kata "Lilith" hanya muncul sekali dalam Alkitab, dan tidak ada hubungannya sama sekali dengan Adam atau Hawa. Lilith, pada kenyataannya, mungkin bukan orang Yahudi sama sekali, dan memiliki asal usul yang rumit yang melibatkan banyak waktu, banyak sumber, dan banyak interpretasi. Jika Anda adalah tipe orang yang mudah tergoda dengan kalimat seperti itu, berikut beberapa hal yang mungkin belum Anda ketahui tentang Lilith, ibu iblis yang memikat.


Lilith: Istri Pertama Adam di Eden atau Iblis Iblis? - Sejarah

Di tengah malam Victoria yang diselimuti kabut, orang tua yang sabar akan dengan lembut membisikkan lagu pengantar tidur kepada anak-anak mereka yang tidak bisa tidur, menenangkan ketakutan mereka bahwa monster mungkin berkeliaran di bawah tempat tidur mereka. Sedikit yang mereka tahu monster yang sangat berbahaya bersembunyi di celah-celah gelap etimologi penghiburan mereka: beberapa berpendapat bahwa kata 'ninabobo' berasal dari bahasa Ibrani 'Lilith abi', yang berarti 'Lilith, pergi' (Gorrell 100) . Asal usul iblis wanita Lilith dapat ditelusuri kembali ke awal kultus monoteis menurut Talmud Yahudi, yang ditulis pada abad kedua, dia adalah istri pertama Adam, diciptakan sama dengannya tidak seperti istri keduanya Hawa, yang dirancang sebagai penurutnya. mitra. Setelah menolak untuk mengambil posisi tunduk selama hubungan seksual, dia dilarang dari Taman Eden, dikirim ke Neraka, dan ditakdirkan untuk melihat setiap anak-anaknya mati. Menurut salah satu legenda, dia mengubah tubuhnya menjadi ular Nahash untuk menggoda istri baru Adam, Hawa, ke dalam kehancurannya.

Selama berabad-abad, karakternya mengalami reputasi sebagai pemakan anak seperti ular, dan penggoda seksual yang memikat bagi pria (Patai 296). Sosok tragis Lilith, yang selalu berlama-lama dalam lingkaran terbatas sejarah lisan Talmud dan Yahudi, dan berkeliaran di bayang-bayang Abad Pertengahan dan era modern awal, jauh dari cahaya, bisa dibilang karena hegemoni Kristen periode di Eropa Barat. Namun demikian, Lilith perlahan merayap ke alam bawah sadar umum masyarakat Victoria, di mana ia beralih dari seorang therianthrope yang haus darah menjadi seorang yang memikat. femme fatale, karena faktor budaya dan agama yang berbeda.

Kemunculan pertama Lilith yang melampaui teks-teks agama kuno ke dalam cerita rakyat Eropa Barat muncul dalam drama Faust 1808 karya Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, di mana succubus diperkenalkan sebagai istri pertama Adam, seorang wanita yang sangat cantik — bahaya terhadap siapa Faust diperingatkan. John Keats dengan malu-malu memperkenalkan sosok itu ke Inggris abad kesembilan belas dengan puisinya yang diresapi Lilith "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" (teks) dan "Lamia" (terjemahan Romawi dari nama Lilith), di mana penggoda berbahaya memikat pria ke kedalaman putus asa. Karya-karya Goethe dan Keats mengawali proses transendensi Lilith. Dia secara bertahap memperoleh tidak hanya tubuh fisik, tetapi juga tubuh dengan penampilan sensual. Dengan melakukan itu, Lilith memantapkan dirinya sebagai katalis dari beberapa kecemasan utama Victoria melalui transformasi dan mistifikasinya yang meningkat.

Faust dan Lilith (Faust bersiap untuk berdansa dengan Penyihir muda di Festival Penyihir dan Penyihir di Pegunungan Hartz). Richard Westall. Minyak di atas kanvas. 1831. Atas perkenan dari Langan's Restaurant, London.

Bisa dibilang, penggambaran pertama Lilith dalam seni abad kesembilan belas dieksekusi oleh penggambaran master gambar Ratu Victoria Richard Westall tentang pertemuan antara Faust dan Lilith yang menggoda dalam karyanya Faust and Lilith (1831). Dalam lukisan ini, Lilith memiliki semua fitur mawar Inggris, dengan kulit putih lily, rambut merah, fitur halus dan tubuh menggairahkan yang condong ke arah Faust, dia memikatnya dengan kehalusan sifat dan lekuk tubuhnya di tengah pemandangan penyelewengan. Di luar keindahan, Faust gagal melihat wajah Setan yang mengerutkan kening padanya, dan ular kecil merangkak ke arahnya, penggambaran Lilith ini mewujudkan godaan sensual dalam bentuknya yang paling murni, karena membuat Faust buta terhadap apa pun selain cita-cita feminin. Untuk pertama kalinya, Lilith benar-benar kehilangan sisi kebinatangannya, karena ular itu hadir dalam lukisan itu tetapi bukan sebagai bagian dari anatominya. Dia sepenuhnya manusia dan manusiawi, tampak perawan namun sangat menarik.

Pentingnya Persaudaraan Pra-Raphaelite pada pembentukan Lilith sebagai Ikon Victoria

Setelah pengenalan Westall yang gemilang, Lilith harus menunggu hampir setengah abad untuk muncul kembali di kancah Victoria, dan ditetapkan sebagai ikon oleh Persaudaraan Pra-Raphaelite Victoria, sebuah kelompok pembangkang kreatif yang muncul dari lingkaran artistik Royal Academy. pada akhir tahun 1840-an. Dengan Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Everett Millais, dan William Holman Hunt sebagai inti pendirinya, Persaudaraan mendirikan basisnya dengan keyakinan bahwa seni dimaksudkan untuk menjadi moral, inovatif, reformis politik, dan harus mengikuti para ahli melukis sebelum dan hingga Raphael (Barringer, Rosenfeld, Smith 9). Tema-tema alkitabiah, mitologis dan sastra lazim dan disukai di antara kelompok itu, dan lebih khusus lagi tokoh-tokoh perempuan dari narasi-narasi itu. Proserpine, Beatrice Portinari, Salome, Ophelia, Lady of Shalott, dan figur feminin yang lebih kuat telah menjadi subjek sapuan kuas cat minyak yang lembut dan cerah dari Persaudaraan Pra-Raphaelite.

Nyonya Lilit. Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Minyak di atas kanvas. 1873. Atas perkenan Museum Seni Delaware.

Rossetti, salah satu anggota mereka yang paling menonjol, mendapati dirinya tertarik pada karya Goethe, dan menetapkan Lilith sebagai ikon Victoria melalui apa yang dapat dianggap sebagai obsesi yang benar-benar kreatif. Lukisannya Lady Lilith menyajikan penggambaran succubus yang menggairahkan dan hangat yang menyisir rambut tembaganya, lingkaran flora subur yang mengelilinginya. Kecantikannya yang sunyi hanya dapat menunjukkan pengaruh lukisan Westall pada sosok ini, tetapi tidak seperti gambar pertama, gambar Lilith ini tampaknya lebih sugestif, karena sensualitasnya hanya terungkap oleh fokus pada bahu telanjangnya, yang ditekankan oleh tubuhnya yang berpakaian lengkap. Bagian tengah lukisan itu tidak diragukan lagi adalah rambutnya, perwujudan dari bahaya dan sensualitas yang dianutnya: memang, sisir dan cermin adalah titik fokus, menegaskan kecenderungan narsis dan berorientasi pada tubuhnya. Elemen penting yang membingkai lukisan itu layak untuk disorot: mawar putih yang mengelilingi rambutnya seperti lingkaran cahaya paling sering dikaitkan dengan ide-ide simbolis kecantikan perawan, kemurnian, dan kepolosan, sementara bunga poppy di sikunya telah digunakan secara leluhur untuk ekstraksi. dari opium yang mematikan. Asosiasi dua metafora ini membuat kontras antara yang tidak bersalah dan yang mematikan, dan menambahkan ambivalensi pada karakter yang dia berdiri di suatu tempat antara bangsawan (Rossetti memuliakannya dengan gelar 'Lady') dan keburukan.

Rossetti juga menyentuh keindahan jasmani dalam sonetanya "Body's Beauty" yang disusun pada tahun 1881, sejajar dengan lukisannya untuk menawarkan representasi interdisipliner dari Lilith-nya:

Tentang istri pertama Adam, Lilith, diceritakan
(Penyihir yang dia cintai sebelum pemberian Hawa,)
Bahwa, sebelum ular itu, lidahnya yang manis bisa menipu,
Dan rambut ajaibnya adalah emas pertama.
Dan dia masih duduk, muda sementara bumi sudah tua,
Dan, secara halus merenungkan dirinya sendiri,
Menarik pria untuk menonton jaring terang yang bisa dia tenun,
Sampai hati dan tubuh dan kehidupan berada dalam genggamannya.
Mawar dan poppy adalah bunganya untuk di mana
Apakah dia tidak ditemukan, O Lilith, yang menumpahkan aroma?
Dan ciuman lembut dan tidur nyenyak akan menjerat?
Lihat! saat mata pemuda itu terbakar pada dirimu, jadi pergilah
Mantramu menembusnya, dan membiarkan lehernya yang lurus tertekuk
Dan di sekeliling hatinya sehelai rambut emas mencekik.

Soneta ini mewujudkan semua ambivalensi karakter yang dilukis, tema poppy dan mawar sekali lagi disinggung, serta pentingnya dan penekanan pada rambut Lilith sebagai senjatanya yang menggoda. Dia digambarkan sebagai seorang penyihir yang memamerkan lidah reptilnya di antara 'ciuman lembut'. Namun demikian, Lilith muncul lebih terang-terangan mematikan di soneta, saat ia mengambil kehidupan seorang pemuda terpesona dalam dua baris terakhir, mengabadikan reputasinya sebagai seorang femme fatale. Dalam sebuah surat kepada temannya Dr Hacke pada tahun 1870, Rossetti menyebut soneta gambarnya sebagai representasi dari 'Modern Lilith' (Allen 286). Modernitas ini, menurut Virginia M. Allen, memiliki pengaruh yang bertahan lama pada representasi baru Lilith untuk audiens modern: 'Rossetti mungkin telah menggali memori yang luas untuk citra Goethe, tetapi keterlibatannya dengan bentuk itu abadi. Dengan karya inilah gambar itu menerima label baru, dan iblis malam mematikan dari cerita rakyat Yahudi menerima bentuk baru' (291). Oleh karena itu, lukisan ini merupakan tengara yang menentukan untuk penggambaran, apresiasi, dan evolusi Lilith, karena ia menjadi lebih cantik dan ambivalen, oleh karena itu lebih mengancam.

Lilit. John Collier. Minyak di atas kanvas. 1887. Atas perkenan Galeri Seni Atkinson.

Karya Rossetti mengilhami seniman Victoria lainnya, John Collier, untuk melukis salah satu karyanya yang paling terkenal, Lilith, pada tahun 1887. Lilith-nya memiliki kemiripan yang mencolok dengan gaya Pra-Raphael Rossetti, dengan rambut merahnya yang indah, wajah istirahat malaikat (ditampilkan dalam tempera teknik melukis) dia tetap tampak lebih mengancam secara seksual. Seekor ular melilit leher, pinggul, dan kakinya yang telanjang, disikat dengan lembut oleh rambutnya yang panjang. Dalam gerakan merayu, dia memperlihatkan lehernya kepada ular itu, taringnya tampaknya siap untuk menjerumuskannya ke dalam tipu daya - atau ke dalam kepercayaan diri. Kontras antara tubuh putih terangnya dan kegelapan di sekelilingnya menyebarkan rasa takut dan gelisah, karena kerapuhan wanita muda yang lembut menyembunyikan nada yang lebih gelap. Dengan cara yang sama seperti Westall's Lilith , ketelanjangannya yang memikat 'tidak terlalu mesum, dan Lilith disajikan sebagai citra kecantikan ideal, yang realistis dan kontemporer.' Memang, Lilith sekali lagi diberi sentuhan modern saat ia diadaptasi untuk cita-cita kecantikan Inggris Victoria, mirip dengan Lady Lilith Rossetti, dengan rambut merah panjangnya, kulit pucat, dan sosok montok.

Mengikuti tradisi Westall, Lilith pasti didirikan dalam ikonografi Victoria berkat lukisan Rossetti dan Collier, karena dalam kedua lukisan itu ia mewakili keindahan dikotomis anxiogenic yang mengelilingi tubuh wanita Victoria, dalam kemegahannya yang perawan dan menggoda. Kedua seniman Pra-Raphaelite menawarkan pandangan modern tentang Lilith dan menilai kembali feminitas berbahaya karakter itu bahkan jika ular itu masih ada, dia terlepas darinya dalam arti jasmani, dan disajikan sebagai cita-cita estetis Inggris yang tidak ambigu. Ambiguitasnya berubah dari manusia ular menjadi penggoda perawan, karena bahayanya menjadi lebih ditaklukkan namun sama kuatnya.

Visi yang berkembang tentang feminitas dan kewanitaan

Pergeseran persepsi tentang karakter yang mendominasi seperti Lilith menjadi penggambaran yang modern dan menarik ini menguasai seni Victoria karena kondisi perempuan berubah secara drastis. Pada awal era Victoria, tuntutan Era Industri membutuhkan perempuan untuk berpartisipasi dalam pekerjaan, tetapi mereka terbatas pada peran domestik di rumah, dan status sosial mereka hanya dihargai oleh hubungan mereka dengan kerabat maskulin, karena mereka tidak memilikinya. hak untuk memiliki properti atau suara. Roderick F. McGillis menganalisis 'keterbatasan kehidupan rumah tangga Victoria di mana wanita yang beruntung menikah dan dibesarkan, yang kurang beruntung menemukan posisi sebagai juru masak, pengasuh atau pembantu, dan yang paling tidak beruntung terdampar di jalanan' (McGillis 3). Namun demikian, pada awal tahun 1880-an, citra Wanita Baru, seorang wanita Victoria yang emansipasi, bebas, dan intelektual mulai muncul di masyarakat Inggris, mengingat kebangkitan gerakan hak pilih, dan feminisasi pendidikan dan tenaga kerja ( Diniejko). Feminis intelektual seperti Mrs. Wolstenholme Elmy, dan sekutu serta temannya Emmeline Pankhurst menjadi tokoh terkemuka dari tatanan sosial yang berubah, menganjurkan pemberdayaan perempuan dan cinta bebas melalui waralaba di akhir abad kesembilan belas. Fin-de-siècle menjadi periode kunci untuk kemajuan feminisme, sebagai tonggak yang cukup besar dicapai untuk perbaikan dan evolusi kondisi perempuan. Pada tahun 1869, sembilan wanita mengikuti “Ujian Umum untuk Wanita” di London, dan enam di antaranya menjadi wanita pertama yang mengakses pendidikan universitas di Inggris (Carter). Lilith, pemakan anak-anak dan penggoda seksual, oleh karena itu datang untuk secara metaforis dan berlebihan mewakili visi baru feminitas ini, antara pemberdayaan perempuan dan bahaya bagi struktur sosial dan keluarga tradisional. Seperti yang diungkapkan oleh Virginia M. Allen dalam kata-kata: 'Dia mewakili Wanita Baru, bebas dari kontrol pria, momok keluarga patriarkal Victoria' (Allen, 286). Citra penggoda bebas masih menjadi inti karakter, sosoknya yang memikat dan menggoda, mata kamar tidur dan rambut indah tetap menjadi fitur bahaya seksual, membuatnya cocok dengan label femme fatale yang mengebiri, di tengah-tengah antara "Wanita Gila di Loteng" dan "Wanita Baru".

Kecemasan Lilith mengaduk dalam masyarakat Victoria namun tidak hanya dapat dikaitkan dengan dia mewujudkan Wanita Victoria Baru Lilith memprovokasi penderitaan yang tidak nyaman untuk transendensi nya label feminin. Digambarkan dalam adegan yang sangat intim dan tenang -telanjang, menyisir rambutnya di depan cermin- dan menampilkan fitur seorang wanita Inggris tradisional, lukisan-lukisan itu menunjukkan Lilith sebagai wanita yang estetis jinak dan murni yang tampaknya tinggal di dalam rumah, dengan bunga bakungnya- kulit putih penampilan fisiknya memancarkan aura tak bernoda, berlawanan dengan penggambaran masa lalu yang mengerikan dan penuh kecemasan. Konflik estetis ini telah diidentifikasi oleh Nina Auerbach: 'Mungkin tidak mengherankan bahwa setan perempuan memiliki kemiripan yang menakutkan dengan rekan-rekan malaikat mereka, meskipun karakteristik yang tersirat dalam malaikat datang untuk memaksa setan' (Auerbach 75). Sementara digambarkan sebagai monster di Talmud, dia sekarang muncul sebagai wanita yang bereputasi baik dalam seni Inggris. Ketegangan yang belum terselesaikan antara daya tarik seorang wanita terhormat dan daya tarik hina dari seorang penggoda tidak diragukan lagi membuat bingung penonton Victoria.

Penggambaran Lilith ini sebagai pengaruh pada sastra Victoria fin-de-siècle

Selain seni bergambar Victoria, Lilith masuk ke garis beberapa penulis terbaik Inggris. Di antara mereka, Robert Browning dan George Macdonald mungkin menyampaikan penggambaran sastra paling cemerlang dari Lilith.

Pada tahun 1883 Robert Browning menggubah "Adam, Lilith and Eve":

Suatu hari, itu bergemuruh dan menjadi ringan.
Dua wanita, cukup ketakutan,
Tenggelam berlutut, berubah, terpaku,
Di kaki pria yang duduk di antara
Dan "Kasihan!" teriak masing-masing-- "jika saya mengatakan yang sebenarnya
Sebuah bagian di masa mudaku!"

Mengatakan Ini: "Apakah Anda keberatan dengan pagi hari?
Aku bertemu cintamu dengan cemoohan?
Saat racun terburuk meninggalkan bibirku,
Saya berpikir, 'Jika, terlepas dari kebohongan ini. dia menelanjangi
Topeng dari jiwaku dengan ciuman – aku merangkak
Budaknya,—jiwa, tubuh, dan semuanya!'"

Mengatakan Bahwa: "Kami berdiri untuk menikah
Pendeta, atau seseorang, tinggal
'Jika pintu surga terbukti terkunci?' tersenyum Anda.
Saya berpikir, sambil mengangguk, tersenyum juga,
'Apakah satu, itu pergi, tiba - atau terlambat
Juga tidak akan segera membuka gerbang Neraka!'"

Itu berhenti menjadi terang dan guntur.
Up mulai heran,
Melihat sekeliling dan melihat bahwa langit cerah,
Lalu tertawa, "Akui kamu percaya pada kami, Sayang!"
"Saya melihat melalui lelucon!" pria itu menjawab.
Mereka kembali duduk sendiri di samping.

Ini menyajikan contoh pertama dari persahabatan ikatan antara Lilith dan Hawa, karena mereka pertama kali diperkenalkan sebagai 'dua wanita', mengucapkan kata-kata yang sama kepada Adam mereka. Ini adalah representasi yang paling simpatik dan kurang mengancam dari iblis wanita yang dia bersumpah bahwa 'bisa yang terburuk meninggalkan bibirku', saat dia menyatakan cintanya yang putus asa untuk Adam, dan tidak memiliki perasaan kejam terhadap pasangan aslinya. Kami sebenarnya dihadapkan pada oposisi yang bergeser, karena Lilith dan Hawa tampaknya membentuk pasangan di depan Adam, kontras dengan pasangan kanonik Adam dan Hawa melawan Lilith. Browning tidak membatasi penggambarannya tentang dia hanya dengan deskripsi fisik: dia masuk ke kedalaman interpretasinya tentang karakter, menggambarkan keputusasaan seorang wanita yang penuh kasih: 'Saya merangkak / budaknya, --jiwa, tubuh dan semuanya!'

Karya George Macdonald tahun 1895, Lilith, kembali ke penggambaran Lilith yang lebih tradisional, dengan ciri-ciri setan kanoniknya. Novel ini menceritakan kisah Mr Vane, seorang pustakawan lulusan Oxford yang menemukan jalan ke alam semesta paralel di mana ayahnya tinggal dengan bantuan hantu, Mr Raven. Di sana, dia bertemu Lilith, Ratu Neraka, yang merayunya. Dia tetap menjadi penggoda, dan muncul kembali sebagai pembunuh anak dia adalah pembaca yang diperkenalkan kepada putrinya Lona, yang akhirnya dia bunuh, sebelum dibawa ke Rumah Kematian. Sekali lagi, Lilith muncul sebagai seorang femme fatale, dibebani dengan ketidaknyamanan yang dipicunya di antara penonton: “salah satu fitur dari MacDonald's Lilith adalah rasa kasihan dan penolakan yang dia tarik. Lilith memiliki semua bahan dari wanita yang fatal seperti yang diuraikan dalam The Romantic Agony karya Mario Praz : dia abadi, bijaksana, bermasalah, dan pucat” (McGillis 8). MacDonald juga mengulangi episode Talmud dalam bab "Ke Rumah Kepahitan", saat Mr Vane dihancurkan oleh beban Lilith saat dia berbaring di atasnya: 'Datanglah angin dingin dengan sengatan yang membakar - Lilith menimpaku' (Macdonald 85), sebuah gambar yang membuktikan kekuatan Lilith, saat dia akhirnya berhasil memiliki posisi dominan di atas seorang pria.

Selain mahakarya MacDonald, sejumlah penulis terinspirasi untuk menanamkan bahaya Lilith dalam karakterisasi protagonis mereka. Di antara mereka, novella Lilith oleh Walter Herries Pollock, dirilis pada tahun 1874 di halaman The Temple , dan The Soul of Lilith, yang ditulis pada tahun 1895 oleh Marie Corelli, menonjol. Dalam kedua novel, dua wanita bernama Lilith (tanpa afiliasi langsung dengan iblis wanita kami) menyebabkan kehancuran dan pembusukan protagonis pria dengan daya tarik vampir mereka. Kedua kejadian ini menunjukkan bagaimana Lilith akhirnya dimasukkan ke dalam arus utama, karena hanya dengan menyebut namanya saja dapat memicu kekaguman dan teror di mata pembaca Victoria, dan memproyeksikan sejumlah fitur yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya kepada karakter baru.

Lilith sebagai perwujudan ketakutan Victoria

Dalam masa transisi penemuan ilmiah yang dramatis, kemajuan filosofis dan kejiwaan dan modernisasi, masyarakat tradisional Victorian Kristen mengalami konflik batin besar yang terutama muncul melalui karakter Lilith memang, ia membuktikan sumber kecemasan jauh melampaui feminitas memikat dan dominan, menghancurkan harapan moral masyarakat konservatif.

Jika karakter Lilith secara tidak sadar memicu gairah dan kesedihan dari penonton Victoria, itu bisa dibilang sebagian besar karena sifat asingnya, yang telah sangat sedikit dipelajari dan diidentifikasi dalam konteks Victoria. Lilith, atau dalam bahasa Ibrani, tetap menjadi karakter Talmud yang eksotis yang -tidak seperti Dracula- pergi ke Inggris Raya untuk memikat pria Inggris dan mengkompromikan cita-cita 'British'. Memang, Yudaisme menjadi entitas spiritual dan asing yang signifikan di Inggris Victoria, karena 'jumlah orang Yahudi di Inggris meningkat dari 60.000 pada tahun 1880 menjadi 300.000 pada tahun 1914, sebagai akibat dari migran yang melarikan diri dari penganiayaan di Rusia dan Eropa timur' (Warisan Inggris), dengan komunitas yang sangat penting di London Timur. Dari iblis wanita Yahudi yang tak berbentuk, Lilith melakukan metamorfosis menjadi ciri-ciri Mawar Inggris yang menggoda, sementara masih tetap menjadi Hebraic Other. Oleh karena itu, dia berdiri sebagai kejadian luar biasa dalam Seni Victoria, seperti yang diidentifikasi Jon Thompson bahwa 'sekali individu ditetapkan sebagai "orang lain" budaya berdasarkan menjadi orang asing [. ] mereka hampir tidak dicirikan sama sekali atau hanya ditangani dengan cara yang paling stereotip' (Thompson 69) memang Lilith lolos dari penggambaran tradisional Victoria tentang "penjahat Yahudi", saat dia menyembunyikan sifat asingnya dalam tubuh seorang Inggris wanita. Dapat dikatakan bahwa penggambaran ini adalah contoh dari pengapuran, namun tidak dapat disangkal memungkinkan pengembangan dirinya yang multi-faceted meskipun kemampuannya untuk beradaptasi dengan audiens yang berbeda. Keberbedaannya menjadi lebih berbahaya karena ke-Inggrisannya yang baru ditemukan.

Sebagai iblis wanita transendensi, Lilith membuktikan karakter yang tidak nyaman bagi Inggris Victoria, karena dia melampaui peran agama aslinya untuk menjadi ikon budaya sekuler dan profan. Memang, seperti yang dijelaskan Nina Auerbach, 'Di Inggris Victoria, zaman yang dikuasai oleh iman tetapi tidak memiliki dogma, setiap serangan supernatural ke alam menjadi sangat mengerikan karena tidak dapat diklasifikasikan' (75). Daya tarik utama Lilith dan kehadirannya yang konstan dalam seni Victoria dapat berasal dari kekristenan yang runtuh, dan transisinya dari teks-teks keagamaan ke karya-karya sekuler dari asal usul kemanusiaan yang baru diperebutkan, digoyahkan oleh teori evolusi Charles Darwin tahun 1859. Memang, 'orang yang secara umum dianggap sebagai penyebab keraguan dalam pikiran orang-orang Kristen Victoria adalah Charles Darwin' (Skotlandia 1), meskipun sebenarnya ahli geologi, ahli bahasa, dan sarjana Alkitab telah melakukannya beberapa dekade sebelumnya. Semua faktor ini menimbulkan 'pertanyaan apakah Tuhan dengan tindakan khusus menciptakan dunia dan makhluk yang menghuninya.' Oleh karena itu, banyak orang di Inggris yang mencoba menemukan jawaban dalam kepercayaan alternatif 'ketika kepastian lama runtuh, kepercayaan baru muncul, seperti Spiritualisme, yang didirikan di Inggris pada tahun 1850-an, dan Teosofi, yang mengacu pada Buddhisme dan Hinduisme' (Warisan Inggris). Lilith adalah saksi aktif dari bubarnya hegemoni Kristen menuju ikonografi yang lebih sekuler, non-konformis, dan bahkan supranatural.

Oleh karena itu Lilith membangkitkan perasaan cemas di zaman Victoria saat ia mewujudkan penghancuran fondasi masyarakat tradisional dan menjadi bukti masyarakat Victoria dalam keadaan fluks intelektual dan sosial.

Kesimpulan

Lilit. Althea Gyles. Ilustrasi dari The Dome I (Okt.-Des. 1898): 235.

Kemunculan terakhir Lilith dalam seni Victoria mungkin adalah ilustrasi Althea Gyles dari jurnal The Dome. Gyles menggambarkan Lilith dengan tampilan khasnya yang kanonik: ketelanjangan, mawar, dan ular. Namun demikian, rambutnya yang panjang dipangkas menjadi bob flapper pendek, elemen pemberontak rambutnya masih ada, tetapi telah bergeser ke konteks awal abad kedua puluh, ketika bob pendek terbukti lebih membangkang daripada rambut panjang. Sapuan kuas yang dicampur dengan hati-hati dari teknik lukisan minyak Pra-Raphaelite ditinggalkan demi garis tajam hitam dan putih modern dan gaya Art Nouveau, terus mengadaptasi Lilith untuk abad baru dengan relevansi yang utuh, namun berkembang.

Melalui representasinya yang berubah-ubah dalam seni gambar dan sastra Victoria, sosok Lilith membuktikan dirinya sebagai representasi ikonik dari banyak ketakutan Victoria. Daya pikatnya yang mendominasi secara seksual telah dianalisis sebagai pukulan pengebirian dan feminis selama periode di mana peran wanita sangat berubah, tetapi pemeriksaan identitas Inggris yang dipicunya merupakan elemen katarsis bagi penonton Anglo-Saxon. Oleh karena itu, kebangkitan representasi Victorian Lilith adalah kisah penebusan iblis wanita yang, melalui karya-karya seniman yang memahami kompleksitas dan keindahan ceritanya, mengubahnya menjadi ikon pelanggaran progresif dalam masyarakat Victoria yang berubah.

Bibliografi

Allen, Virginia M. "'Satu Rambut Emas Mencekik': Lady Lilith karya Dante Gabriel Rossetti ." Buletin Seni .New-York: CAA. 1984

Auerbach, Nina. Wanita dan Iblis: Kehidupan Mitos Victoria . Cambridge: Pers Universitas Harvard. 1982

Barringer, Tim, Jason Rosenfeld, dan Alison Smith. Pra-Raphaelite: Avant-Garde Victoria. London: Penerbitan Tate, 2012

Browning, Robert. “Adam, Lilith, dan Hawa”. Proyek Lilit. 1883. Jaringan. Diakses 14 April 2019

Carter, Philip. "Wanita pertama di universitas: mengingat 'London Sembilan'". Peringkat Universitas Dunia. 28 Januari 2018. Web. Diakses 15 Agustus 2019.

Diniajko, Andrzej. "Fiksi Wanita Baru". Web Victoria. 17/12/2011. Web. Diakses 15 April 2019

Gorrell, Robert M. What's in a Word?: Etimologis Gosip tentang Beberapa Kata Bahasa Inggris yang Menarik . Reno: Pers Universitas Nevada. 2001

Macdonald, George. Lilit. Inggris Raya: Platform Penerbitan Independen CreateSpace. 1895

McGillis, Roderick F. "George MacDonald dan Legenda Lilith di Abad XIX". Mitos: Jurnal J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, dan Sastra Mythopoeic. 6.1 (1979): Pasal 1.

Patai, Rafael. "Lilit". The Journal of American Folklore 77, No. 306. Cambridge: American Folklore Society. 1964

“Religion”. English Heritage . Web. Accessed 16 April 2019

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. “Body's Beauty”. 1881. Poem Hunter . Web. Accessed 17 April 2019

Scotland, Nigel. “Darwin and Doubt and the Response of the Victorian Churches”. Churchman . 100.4. (1986).

Thompson, Jon. Fiction, Crime, and Empire . Champaign: University of Illinois Press. 1993

Yeats, W. B. “A Symbolic Artist and the Coming of Symbolic Art.” The Dome 1 (1998): 233-37. Hathi Trust Digital Library . Web. 30 October 2019.


Personality [ edit | edit sumber]

Lilith is an elegant woman and sure of herself. According to Mazikeen, Lilith is a fearless woman even when she gave birth to Maze and her siblings. She's just not the "mothering" type. The way Maze describes her childhood supports this fact. Rather than nurturing and caring for her children, Lilith chose to train them to be killing and torturing machines. This is her own version of protecting them and making them strong. Because if her children are never attached to anything, they can never be abandoned or betrayed.

Lilith states that while she doesn’t have many pleasant memories of her time with Adam, she loved the Garden of Eden taking a stone from it to serve as a reminder that she doesn't need Adam or God.

After meeting Gertie and learning her motivations Lilith takes an interest in making an emotional connection with humans. However, she realizes that she can't do that while keeping her immortality, so she gave it up so she can walk alongside and understand humans.


Lilit

Kata Ibrani לִּילִית “lilith” appears only once in the Bible, in the Book of Isaiah 34:14 –

“Wild animals and wild dogs will congregate there wild goats will bleat to one another. Yes, nocturnal animals will rest there and make for themselves a nest.”

The translators of the New English Translation translate “Lilith” to mean “nocturnal animals” and had this to say in their notes –

“The precise meaning of לִּילִית (lilit) is unclear, though in this context the word certainly refers to some type of wild animal or bird. The word appears to be related to לַיְלָה (laylah, “night”). Some interpret it as the name of a female night demon, on the basis of an apparent Akkadian cognate used as the name of a demon. Later Jewish legends also identified Lilith as a demon.”

It’s true indeed that the Akkadian language did have a similar word to Lilith – “Lilu” – and it is debated if the two words are cognates or related. However, it should be noted that Lilu in the Akkadian language is a masculine word, not feminine, and seems to be a general term for “demon”. In the Sumerian king list, the father of Gilgamesh is said to be a lilu. Referring back to the verse in Isaiah, it would make sense that it is referring to some type of wild animal or bird based on the fact the verses immediately before and following verse 14 are referring to animals –

“Her fortresses will be overgrown with thorns thickets and weeds will grow in her fortified cities. Jackals will settle there ostriches will live there.” – Isaiah 34:13
“Owls will make nests and lay eggs there they will hatch them and protect them. Yes, hawks will gather there, each with its mate. Carefully read the scroll of the Lord! Not one of these creatures will be missing, none will lack a mate. For the Lord has issued the decree, and his own spirit gathers them. He assigns them their allotment he measures out their assigned place. They will live there permanently they will settle in it through successive generations.” – Isaiah 34:15-17

The evidence doesn’t support the idea that Lilith was taken or censored out of the Bible to hide the fact that she was Adam’s first wife, as she does not appear in any Biblical apocrypha works, does not appear in any pseudepigrapha works from the Biblical period, is not mentioned in any of the gospels, and she does not appear in any of the Gnostic text from the Nag Hammadi Library, all text dating from a range of the 7th Century BCE to the 2nd Century CE. In Jewish tradition dating from the 6th century CE, Lilith is mentioned in three places within the Babylonian Talmud. Though she is not mentioned as being the wife of Adam, the text does seem to suggest she was a demon. However, it’s likely this view may have been established centuries later than when any of the previous biblical and deuterocanonical text were written and be based on the idea of the Akkadian word Lilu meaning demon.

The earliest text referring to Lilith as the first wife of Adam comes from the medieval text titled The Alphabet of ben Sirach which scholars date as being written anywhere between 700 and 1000 CE. This work however was never understood as or treated as revealed or inspired scripture, rather the work was written and treated as a satire. It is from within this text alone that we are told the story of Lilith being Adam’s first wife who refused to submit to her husband.

“While God created Adam, who was alone, He said, ‘It is not good for man to be alone’ (Genesis 2:18). He also created a woman, from the earth, as He had created Adam himself, and called her Lilith. Adam and Lilith immediately began to fight. She said, ‘I will not lie below,’ and he said, ‘I will not lie beneath you, but only on top. For you are fit only to be in the bottom position, while I am to be the superior one.’ Lilith responded, ‘We are equal to each other inasmuch as we were both created from the earth.’ But they would not listen to one another. When Lilith saw this, she pronounced the Ineffable Name and flew away into the air.” – The Alphabet of ben Sirach, fifth response to King Nebuchadnezzar.

Because of Lilith refusing to submit to Adam based on the idea that she was his equal, Lilith is sometimes exalted as a women’s empowerment or feminist icon. However, it should be noted and considered that the rest of the text goes on to describe Lilith as a demoness who terrorizes pregnant women, fornicates with demons, and murders infants. The work certainly does not paint a picture of Lilith being an ally to women. As the text is indeed a work of satire, it should also be considered that the text should not be taken too seriously in it’s treatment of Adam and Lilith. To the Gnostics, Adam and his wife Eve were seen as equals, and Eve especially was given high honor as she was responsible for Adam’s awakening.

Eve represents the Divine Feminine and is the archetype Mother of all Life. She is also responsible for Adam’s (humanity’s) awakening to their true Divine Self. As the daughter of or even a manifestation of Sophia, it was Eve who brought forth the life giving Light from the upper realms of the Pleroma into the darkness of matter so that Adam (humanity) can see. Upon seeing Adam cast in darkness by the Archons, Sophia sent her daughter Eve (also called Zoe which means “life”) to be a help and instructor to Adam and to reveal to him his true Divine nature and how to ascend back into the Pleroma from where his Spirit (the breath of life that was breathed into him) came. Eve then became hidden within Adam so that Yaldabaoth and his Archons would not be aware of her. While Adam laid dormant in the darkness he was thrown in, Eve spoke to him from within and said “Adam! Come alive! Arise upon the Earth!” Adam then sprang to life once again, and upon seeing the form of Eve said “You shall be called ‘Mother of the Living’. For it is you who have given me life.”

While the Biblical text says that Eve was created from the rib of Adam, the Gnostic text demonstrates that this was a lie told in order to suppress the Divine Feminine principle and it’s role.

“Then the authorities were informed that their modeled form was alive and had arisen, and they were greatly troubled. They sent seven archangels to see what had happened. They came to Adam. When they saw Eve talking to him, they said to one another, “What sort of thing is this luminous woman? For she resembles that likeness which appeared to us in the light. Now come, let us lay hold of her and cast her seed into her, so that when she becomes soiled she may not be able to ascend into her light. Rather, those whom she bears will be under our charge. But let us not tell Adam, for he is not one of us. Rather let us bring a deep sleep over him. And let us instruct him in his sleep to the effect that she came from his rib, in order that his wife may obey, and he may be lord over her.”

Then Eve, being a force, laughed at their decision. She put mist into their eyes and secretly left her likeness with Adam.” – On the Origin of the World

Having slipped away to be alone in the Garden of Eden, Eve was approached by the Serpent, though the exchange in the Gnostic texts is slightly different than the biblical version.

“And when he saw the likeness of their mother Eve he said to her, “What did God say to you? Was it ‘Do not eat from the tree of knowledge’?” She said, “He said not only, ‘Do not eat from it’, but, ‘Do not touch it, lest you die.'” He said to her, “Do not be afraid. In death you shall not die. For he knows that when you eat from it, your intellect will become sober and you will come to be like gods, recognizing the difference that obtains between evil men and good ones. Indeed, it was in jealousy that he said this to you, so that you would not eat from it.” Now Eve had confidence in the words of the instructor. She gazed at the tree and saw that it was beautiful and appetizing, and liked it she took some of its fruit and ate it and she gave some also to her husband, and he too ate it. Then their intellect became open. For when they had eaten, the light of knowledge had shone upon them.” – On the Origin of the World

As you can see, Eve was Adam’s (and therefore, humanity’s) first Teacher, raising Adam up from the darkness of ignorance into the Light of Knowledge. She is also humanity’s first Mother, and therefore embodies the archetype of the Great Matriarch. Eve should never be thought of as being naive, submissive, or the blame for the Fall of Man in the way the Judeo-Christian religions have treated her with their Bible. It’s actually quite the opposite, and she should be honored as the Raising Up of Man. The Gnostics have always felt that we are greatly indebted to the Original Woman, who embodies the archetype of Sophia (Wisdom).

To read the Gnostic text for yourself, check out On the Origin of the World & The Apocryphon of John

An excerpt of The Alphabet of ben Sirach concerning Lilith is on Wikipedia.

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Who was Lillith / Lilith? Did Adam have another wife before Eve?

Lilith is a mythological character purported to have been Adam's first wife. The Bible contains no such account nor even hints at such a possibility. According to the legend, Lilith was headstrong and independent, and didn't want to submit to Adam, so she divorced him. How the Lilith legend came to be is a circuitous tale on its own.

The legend of Lilith originated in the last chapter of the Epic of Gilgamesh—a chapter which was probably not original to the rest of the text. In the story, the goddess Inanna finds a tree in a river and plants it in her garden. She cares for it for ten years, but finds that it's been infested with "the serpent who could not be charmed," "the Anzu-bird," and "the dark maid Lilith." Inanna cannot get rid of the squatters, so she asks her brother Gilgamesh. He strikes the serpent, leading the Anzu-bird to flee with its young and Lilith to smash her home and escape to "the wild, uninhabited places." Gilgamesh chops up the tree and makes a throne and a bed for Inanna.

The Aleppo National Museum is in possession of an amulet with the engraving of a sphinx and a she-wolf that includes the words "O, Demoness-that-flies in a dark chamber, Get on your way at once, O Lili!" The amulet is thought to be Syrian, from the 6th or 7th century BC, but it's also possible it's a forgery from the 1930s.

It's possible that the Bible references Lilith as a pagan character. Isaiah 34:14 reads, "And wild animals shall meet with hyenas the wild goat shall cry to his fellow indeed, there the night bird settles and finds for herself a resting place." The night bird (some translations say "screech owl") is the Hebrew Liyliyth. It is derived from layil, which means "night." "Lilith," literally, means "night maid," so it's unclear if the verse refers to the Sumerian goddess or if it's a poetic way to describe a female nocturnal bird.

Some argue for Lilith's existence by pointing to the seeming conflict between Genesis 1 and 2. In Genesis 1:27, God creates male and female. But Genesis 2:18–25 tells the story of the creation of Eve. In truth, Genesis 1 is a synopsis of the six days of creation while Genesis 2 gives more detail into the sixth day when God created Adam and Eve. But many people misinterpret the timeline and think the chapters are straight chronology. Genesis 1:27, they say, refers to Lilith.

Extra-biblical writings of Judaism hold to this account. The midrash Genesis Rabba (AD 300—500) infers that Adam had a first wife. The Babylonian Talmud says that Lilith has wings, that she can cause birth defects, that she is a succubus, and that she used the nocturnal emissions of sleeping men to conceive demon babies. The first text that clearly connects Lilith as Adam's first wife is The Alphabet of Ben Sira. In this text, Lilith is said to have left Adam when he demanded she be submissive in sex. When Adam asked angels to bring her back, she said she wouldn't. The angels told her they would kill her demon children, so she responded that she would in turn kill the babies of the descendants of Adam.

Further legend says that she is responsible for diphtheria, stillborn children, and babies who die of SIDS. It was a short leap to go from Lilith as "night maid" to "night hag," and blame her for sleep paralysis. Some, including Michelangelo, associate her with the serpent that tempted Eve. In this incarnation, she is the wife of Satan and provides the body so that he can be the voice that talks to Eve.

More recently, feminists and New Agers have claimed Lilith as a role model. They praise her independence and sexual freedom and use her as an example when refusing to submit to their husbands. She has leant her name to "Lilith Fair," a touring concert of female singers and female-led bands, and Lilith Magazine, a Jewish feminist magazine.

The only verified part of all this is that Lilith was a character in ancient Sumerian/Akkadian folk lore. Any "evidence" found in the Bible is easily dismissed. The bulk of literature defining her role in history comes from Kabbalah—a Jewish-based cult. In short, Lilith was a figure of ancient mythology who has since been used to represent death to innocents, sexual predation on men, and feminist independence. She was never real, and she certainly was never married to Adam.


Sejarah

The mythical figure of the ‘dark goddess’ Lilith—a symbol of the independent, rebellious, sensual, courageous, passionate, rageful potential in us all–has been as much a source of inspiration as she has been a flame igniting my curiosity since I was first introduced to her in 1985. For this, I thank an extraordinary teacher, Rabbi Bernard M. Zlotowitz of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in New York.

According to Jewish legend, Lilith was Adam’s first wife and Eve’s predecessor. In the most commonly-told version of the tale, she is made from the earth, as is Adam. For this reason, she refuses to lie beneath Adam sexually, and when he insists, she mutters God’s secret name, leaves the Garden of Eden and Adam, and flies off to the Reed Sea [today called the Red Sea] to live her own life. After Adam complains to God about being alone and Eve comes into the picture, we learn—in traditional patriarchal recountings—that she is warned against the ‘evil’ Lilith and feels Lilith is a rival competing for Adam’s affections. In a contemporary feminist midrash or reinterpretation of this legend by Judith Plaskow, however, we see Lilith painted as Eve’s counterpart, confidante and friend (Womanspirit Rising, 1979).

Lilith is consistently portrayed in many cultures first as a demon, who might have been good or bad, then as a child-killer and temptress as a woman embodying or representing the devil and often personified by Eden’s serpent. In literary and iconographic representations, she is clearly depicted as symbolizing the “evil” inherent in all women. Yet many contemporary women see in her the embodiment of the Goddess, Great Creatrix, Queen of Heaven and Earth, Goddess of Love and War, designations she shares with her counterparts Inanna, Ishtar, Asherah, Anath and Isis. As a goddess of love, beauty and things erotic she is akin to the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus in her wildness and thirst for justice she and Bhadra Kali, the Hindu goddess, could be thought of as sisters. The question of how bloodthirsty she may or may not be—and whether the role of avenger is a positive or negative one—remains an open one. There is also the question, which has gone largely unexplored, of the royal or divine status which may be signified by her serpentine crown and the rings she holds, usually recognized as symbolizing Sumerian royal authority. “She also holds the ring and rod of power. Thus she joins the first rank of gods” (Johnson, 1988).

Lucia Chiavola Birnbaum, in her landmark work Black Madonnas (1993), calls Adam’s treatment of Lilith “the first violence done to women”. If one reads this as rape, as some writers do (Philips, 1984 Ostriker, 1993), one begins to view the Garden of Eden as more prison than paradise. No wonder, then, that Lilith left Adam and Eden in so doing–as Aviva Cantor wrote in the first issue of LILITH Magazine (1972)—Lilith chose loneliness over subservience.

The patriarchy’s treatment of Lilith has been similar to its treatment of Eve. Both have been demonized – Lilith for her independence and open sexuality, and Eve for her quest for knowledge.

We can trace Lilith’s development through both art and text through mythological as well as talmudic, pseudepigraphic and apocryphal sources. They include: the 3rd millenium story of Gilgamesh and the Huluppu Tree a 2400 BCE text referring to a Sumerian storm demon the famous terracotta relief of Lilith known as the Burley plaque from circa 2300 BCE in Babylonian legends dating from roughly 1800 BC in Aramaic incantation texts found in bowls around 600 CE in Nippur, Babylonia (Iraq), Arslan Tash (Syria) and Persia (Iran) in Rabbinic literature, midrashim and folklore from the 5th to the 12th Centuries CE, in 15th and 16th Century European sculpture and woodcuts, in Kabbalistic sources beginning in the 12th and appearing through the 17th Century CE, in literature carrying her through to the present day. The only actual Biblical reference to Lilith or ‘the liliths’ is in the Hebrew Bible (Isaiah 34:14) whether or not it truly represents this mysterious figure is a matter of conjecture.

I find Lilith, as both symbol and mythological figure, endlessly fascinating. When I first learned of her I was in corporate life when I returned to school to pursue an MA degree, she rapidly became the focus of my thesis: “Lilith as Everywoman in Ancient Text & Modern Midrash: Transforming a Demonized Eros”. Whichever legends about her one chooses to believe, for me she symbolizes both the best and the worst in women (and men), and shows us the desirable, mysterious, pro/creative, regenerative and healing powers of the dark or unknown as well as the socially unacceptable or amoral attributes of ‘the dark’.


How Lilith The First Wife of Adam became Demon

As we all know, According to the Bible the first couple of human being created by God were Adam and Eve. But an Ancient Jewish myth contests that Eve was not the first woman that created by God. This myth states that before Eve there was another woman whose name was Lilith. Have you ever think then why and How Lilith The First Wife of Adam became Demon? why God demonized Lilith?

How Lilith, Adam and Eve born

As we know Eve came from one of Adam’s rib but Lilith emerged from clay along with Adam. Since she was created by God in the same way as Adam was created. She thought that she was equal to Her Husband Adam. Hence Lilith did not submit to her husband’s commands and did not accept Adams domination.

Where were Lilith and Eve live?

Lilith and Adam inhabited the “Garden of Eden”. But Lilith’s rebellion put her in a situation where she was forced to choose between submitting to her husband or leaving the “Garden of Eden.” At that time Lilith was not willing to give up her independence. Therefore she opted to leave Adam and the Garden of Eden behind.

Lilith the first woman ever created by God went into exile and settled herself near the Red Sea. God sent Angels in an attempt to convince Lilith to return to the “Garden of Eden” but she turned her back on God.

Why God Created Eve?

Adam started to feel lonely without his wife Lilith. God After seeing that Adam was struggling with loneliness decided to create a new woman for him and then he created Eve.

Why God demonized Lilith (How Lilith The First Wife of Adam became Demon)

Lilith was demonized by God due to her decision to reject the Creator of Universe. she was now considered a woman shaped demon. In her demonic shape Lilith have the power to instigate disease in newborn children. To protect children from evil the babies were given amulets with the names of the angels who tried to take Lilith back to Eden.

Some stories affirmed that Lilith was jealous of the happy life Adam and Eve led in Paradise. Hence, As an act of revenge she assumed shape of a serpent and tricked Eve forcing her and Adam to taste the forbidden fruit which caused the couple to be expelled from the Paradise.

Myth of Lilith in other Civilization

Lilith story is quite well known yet this version is not present in the Christian Bible. It is rejected by both Catholics and Protestants. The version in which she would have been
Adams first wife is found SIRACH Alphabet text.
The date of the writings is unknown but it is believed that they were created already in the
Medieval Era. The myth of Lilith is found in Hebrew, Babylonian, Sumerian and, Assyrian Mythology.
The figure of Lilith in Mesopotamia was seen as an evil deity. And when associated with the moon she was regarded as a goddess with different phases and therefore different
moods. That way she could be seen as a “Fertility Goddess” but also as a devilish
figure.

Why Lilith absent from Bible?

There are theories that state that Lilith absence from the Bible was created during the counsels that defined the canonical books that would constitute the Bible as we know it today.

Lilith was first Feminist

The figure of Lilith as an independent and strong woman will go against the patriarchal structure one of the cornerstones of the Judeo-Christian culture. For this reason Lilith was
embraced by the feminist movement. She is often regarded as the first feminist.
The movement claims that Lilith was unfairly demonized like most women in our history
who have attempted to defy the patriarchy.

Whether as a demonic figure or as a symbol of woman’s struggle. Lilith story is still the subject of much interest. What do you think about Lilith Let us know in the comment box.


Gambaran

Enduring Understandings

  • Our deepest fears often reveal what is most important to us.
  • Lilith has been seen as a terrifying character for centuries, but now is often seen as an inspiring role model.
  • Creating art about women in Torah continues the millennia-old tradition of interpretation, while bringing female characters to the center of the process.

Essential Questions

  • Why is Lilith’s story important?
  • Is Lilith a demoness, a heroine, or both?
  • How does Alicia’s song contribute to our understanding of Lilith’s story?

Notes to Teacher

We encourage you to make this curriculum your own. For instance, if there isn’t time during your class period to have students sketch out their own creative interpretations, you can either leave this part out or treat it as an extension activity.

We also encourage you to include as much hevruta (partner) study as possible. If you are new to hevruta study, you can think of it as discussion between two partners who can help each other learn by challenging each other’s first impressions. Breaking the group into pairs and having them read texts out loud, rather than silently, is an essential part of hevruta study.

Lastly, when studying the Torah text, we find it helpful to have students identify every problem, difficulty, or moment of confusion they can find in the text, as if they were on a scavenger hunt. This opens up the door to midrash, the Jewish tradition of creative Torah interpretation, which imagines answers to those questions.

"We are Androgynous": Explanation of a Musical Midrash

To the extent that I experienced Judaism growing up, it was classic 80’s suburban Reform Judaism. We had Maxwell House seders and menorahs at home, and my religious education took place at a huge congregation across town from the non-Jewish suburb where I lived. This education involved a rabbi in robes, a choir behind a screen on the bimah, and a bat mitzvah where I learned to chant a few lines of Torah without learning what they meant. I am grateful to the teachers and rabbis and cantors who passed down these traditions, kept them alive in the desert of suburban Maryland, taught us the Hebrew alphabet, and declared me bat mitzvah in front of the scroll. But I burned with questions, and ached for direct contact with spiritual wisdom and exploration. I was looking for direct engagement with the sacred mysteries, not old stories about God, and so it did not occur to me to look in Judaism. Though I tasted a bit of holiness in the synagogue’s small side chapel, and felt the letters awakening something inside me, I primarily experienced the massive worship room and hectic Hebrew school classrooms as a vehicle for cultural transmission, not spiritual seeking. So I went looking elsewhere for Divinity, magic, mystery.

Not until years later, when life led me back to my Jewish heritage and I made a sort of pilgrimage to Jerusalem at age 21, did I learn that Judaism does indeed engage with the Divine directly - with the God of the Torah, and also with the darkest, most mystical forces. Now I look back and think, “Of course!”, but at the time I would have been shocked to hear that the tradition contained demonesses, amulets, and incantations. Perhaps my suburban rabbis knew these mysterious traditions, but also knew that most of their congregation was not ready to engage with them. More likely, as a side effect of integrating scientific knowledge with Torah and integrating Jews with mainstream American culture, the mystical tradition had been tossed out along with superstitions, strict observance of the commandments, and outdated ideas about a woman’s place.

When I first learned of Lilith, in a book on Jewish mysticism, I felt a thrill - as an artist and as a person. And I am not alone in my fascination. This winged demoness has continued to fly through the imaginations of women and men over cultures, centuries and continents. She has been feared as a demoness and celebrated as a symbol of female liberation and sexuality.

Politically, I love the contemporary trend of embracing and celebrating Lilith as a powerful woman, as many contemporary artists do spiritually, I am equally drawn to the amulets that pregnant and birthing women used to protect themselves against her. In these older, superstitious cultures, Lilith gives a name and a form to the deep human fears - losing a baby, or losing a husband’s love. These fears are so deep precisely because of the strength of our love they are the inverse measure of how precious life is, and how tenuous. Even at her most demonic, Lilith reflects back to us the sweetness of what we hold dear. The sexual, the familial, and the intensity of our responsibility to create and safeguard the next generation - all these twine together in her character.

When I wrote “We Are Androgynous,” I drew on the midrashic idea that Adam and Lilith (in her role as the First Eve) were created as halves of a whole, double-gendered body, described as “androgynos” in the original text’s Talmudic-Aramaic-via-Ancient-Greek.

In this telling, Lilith asserts herself to Adam as his equal. Adam, dismayed, complains to God that he cannot live with such a presumptuous woman, who thinks she is equal because she was created as part of the same being. God, sympathetic to Adam, banishes Lilith from the garden and starts over with the Eve. This time, God takes the woman from Adam’s rib (literally “side”), so that she will always know she is secondary.

“We Are Androgynous” draws on the story of Lilith and her banishment to consider love, the limitations and transcendence inherent in the human body, and the impossible-to-hold category of gender itself. Using a centuries-old instrument of the violin through the modern technology of the loop pedal echoes the mysterious swirling winds that seem to accompany Lilith through time. (If you don’t know what the loop pedal is, check out this live video.)

Like most modern progressive people, I conceive of romantic love not as a hierarchical relationship, but as the meeting of two equals. In this song, I imagine Lilith holding the same beliefs. After all, thinking she was equal to Adam was, in many interpretations, her original offense.

My Lilith is a proto-modern thinker about love, in whatever genders it manifests. My Lilith remembers being formed by the hands of God, just as Adam was. She may be banished from Eden, but she knows that one day, humans will once again believe in that first Edenic state of love, where she and Adam were two parts of a whole, distinct but equal, both shaped by the Divine. My Lilith looks forward to that day, but she has her boundaries she will not return to the Garden before it comes.


Lilit

Lilith was originally a Sumerian air or storm demon associated with infanticide, "sudden infant death syndrome", still born births, the spreading of disease, the raping of men in their sleep (nocturnal emissions) and the infliction of infertility upon couples. By circa the 8th century the character of Lilith had evolved to become the first wife of Adam in Jewish mysticism and folklore.

Penampilan: In her original appearance Lilith had a monstrous form, winged, hairy and part-animal and part-human. As the first wife of Adam, Lilith was said to be very beautiful, with long red hair. The description of red hair identified Lilith as being evil, as having red hair is believed to be a sign of evil among many Middle Eastern cultures. Such belief has also been passed on to European superstitions where having red hair was viewed as sign a person was a witch, vampire, or werewolf. To see a painting titled Lilit by John Collier, click HERE.

Lore: Menurut Alphabet of Ben Sira, Lilith was Adam's first wife. This belief comes from Genesis 1:27 in which God makes man and woman as equals versus the latter verse of Genesis 2:22 where God makes Eve out of Adam's rib and thus subservient to him.

Genesis 1:27 KJV
So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him male and female created he them.

Genesis 2:22 KJV
22 And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

In order to reconcile both accounts of creation the belief that Adam had a first wife arose. Berdasarkan Alphabet of Ben Sira, Lilith was created out of the earth as Adam was and was his equal. Problems soon developed concerning sex. Both Adam and Lilith demanded upon being the aggressor and to be "on top". Adam complained to God and God commanded Lilith to submit unto Adam and lie beneath him. This so infuriated Lilith that she pronounced the secret name of God and immediately flew up into the air in a whirlwind and left Eden. God then commanded three angels, Senoi, Sansenoi, and Sammangelof, to go search the world to find Lilith and return her to Eden. The angels found Lilith in a deserted cave where she had become the wife of Sammael and was giving birth to hundreds of demons a day. The angels ordered Lilith to return to Adam but she refused. As punishment the angels murder a hundred of her demonic children a day. Lilith told the angels that it was her job to keep humanity in check by killing babies. She then swore an oath to the angels that she would not harm any infant that wore a magical charm containing their names. As time passed Lilith eventually tried to return to Eden. In Genesis she is referred to as "the serpent" but by that time God had already created Eve as Adam's companion. Lilith, as the serpent, attempted to be rid of her new rival by attempting to trick Eve into eating the forbidden fruit. Unfortunately Lilith's plan backfired as when Eve ate the fruit she then immediately gave some of it to Adam for him to eat as well. Frustrated, Lilith raped Adam while he slept and stole his seed. She used his seed to give birth to more of her demonic offspring.

Kekuatan: Lilith, as a demon, possesses supernatural powers such as flight, invisibility, and shape-shifting. She is a skilled witch and seductress and men are usually powerless to resist her. Additionally, Lilith and her offspring can possess people, usually young women.

Lilin/Lilim: The Lilin/Lilim are the demonic offspring of Lilith created from Lilith's mating with Sammael as well as the semen Lilith has stolen from Adam and other human men.

Lilith & Mirrors: All mirrors are portals that lead to the cave of Lilith. Lilith and her offspring can travel anywhere in the world via mirrors. Through mirrors Lilith and her offspring can tempt, deceive, and possess mortals. Women who are possessed by Lilith or a Lilim will become vain, materialistic, promiscuous, disobedient, and will act to destroy families by seducing married men.

Defense Against Lilith: Lilith is vulnerable to magical charms meant to repel her. Some of the basic charms include the names of the three angels, Senoi, Sansenoi, and Sammangelof, as well as the phrase, "Adam and Eve, Baring Lilith". The charms are usually made for the infant to wear or to be pinned on their clothing. Charms can also be placed on the cradle. Lilith can usually only harm male infants within the first 8 days of their life. Female infants can usually be harmed within the first 20 days of life. As a spirit of the night, infants were usually safe from Lilith during daylight. Special bowls with prayers or invocations can be used to either trap Lilith or repel her. Additionally, a strong exorcism called a "divorce" can be performed which will force Lilith to flee.

Controversy Over The Burney Relief: The most popular image claimed to be Lilith may in fact not be her. You can view this image by clicking HERE. The features of the image are problematic for the portrayal of a demon and are more closer to the portrayal of a goddess. Lilith has always been a demon, never a goddess, and so many experts now believe the image is that of Innanna/Ishtar or Ereshkigal instead.

Wiccan And Neopagan Propaganda: Currently there is a trend among Wiccans and Neopagans to present a false conception of Lilith in order to promote various agendas. Though it is true that the account of Lilith found in the Alphabet of Ben Sira is mysoginistic, it should be stated that Lilith was always a demon from the start and has never been a goddess or a figure of goodness. The belief that Lilith was the first feminist is just outright wrong. She is a baby-killer and she harbors hatred and jealousy for human women, the offspring of Eve.

Lilith In The Bible: Lilith makes an appearance in the Bible in Isaiah 34:14, though in the King James Version Lilith is translated as "screech owl".

Isaiah 34:14
The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.

In the Vulgate edition of the Bible the name Lilith is falsely translated as "Lamia". Lamia is a shape-shifting serpent-woman who consumes men, while Lilith is primarily associated with the killing of babies.

King Solomon & The Queen Of Sheba: According to Arabian folklore, King Solomon first suspected that the Queen of Sheba was either Lilith or a Lilim because she had hairy legs.

Lilith As Mother Of Vampires & Witches: Since Lilith never ate of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good or Evil, she is technically immortal and cannot die, at least not until Judgement Day. As an immortal the popular belief arose that Lilith was the mother of all vampires. By mixing her blood with the blood of humans a race of "undead" beings may have been created. This belief has inspired many fiction writers to make Lilith into "the Vampire Queen". Similarly, Lilith is also sometimes claimed to be the mother of witches, the first witch in fact. This belief comes from the false identification of Lilith with the Greek goddess Hecate.

Lilith As Personification Of Crib Death: Due to Lilith's preferred method of killing babies, by strangling them in their sleep, many experts believe Lilith is the personification of "crib death" or S.I.D.S. (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).

Lilith Among Modern Christians: Certain modern Christians believe that Lilith is the demon of abortions.

Lilith In Popular Culture: Lilith makes an appearance in many books and films. In the 1996 movie, Bordello of Blood, Lilith is portrayed as the mother of vampires. In the HBO series Keturunan asli, Lilith is the progenitor of the vampire race. In 1996 Sarah McLachlan created Lilith Fair as a means to counteract the sexism found among concert promoters. The name Lilith was chosen based upon the false belief that Lilith was the first feminist. Lilith Fair was retired in 2011 and ended up raking in millions for charities.


Tonton videonya: Lilith Istri Pertama Adam, Ratu Iblis, Dewi Feminism,Cinta, Gairah Nafsu u0026 Kesuburan (Mungkin 2022).