Podcast Sejarah

Apakah benteng adobe atau benteng palisade lebih dapat dipertahankan?

Apakah benteng adobe atau benteng palisade lebih dapat dipertahankan?

Semuanya sama, ketika jenis benteng ini digunakan, adalah— adobe benteng atau pagar kayu runcing benteng lebih dipertahankan?

Sedikit bagaimana jika mengarah ke pertanyaan ini. Ostrog Rusia seperti Nizhnekamchatsk dan Fort Ross memiliki perimeter palisade sementara presidio Spanyol seperti Tubac dan Santa Barbara memiliki perimeter adobe. Kedua kerajaan tidak pernah berperang (setidaknya di Amerika) meskipun benteng mereka yang paling terpencil berada dalam jarak sekitar 100 km satu sama lain. Contoh (belum tentu representatif) gambar berikut:


Benteng Adobe lebih dapat dipertahankan. Mungkin yang paling terkenal adalah Alamo. Selama perang kemerdekaan Texas, itu dipertahankan oleh kurang dari 200 orang Texas selama hampir dua minggu melawan kemungkinan 10-15 banding satu.

Sebuah benteng palisade terutama merupakan tempat sementara melawan sekelompok tentara yang relatif kecil. Itu rentan terhadap artileri dan bahkan tembakan. Salah satu benteng tersebut adalah Fort Washington selama Revolusi Amerika, yang direbut dengan selisih 8 banding 3 dalam waktu kurang dari sehari. Setelah mengambil banyak korban dalam pendekatan di atas tanah yang kasar, Inggris menembus tembok di dua sisi, "menguasai" posisi Amerika.


Ini adalah sejarah bagaimana jika pertanyaan. Demikian juga saya dapat melawan beton bertulang itu dengan artileri +15 cm dan senapan mesin mengalahkan benteng bata dan palisade.

Seseorang membangun benteng dengan apa yang ada di tangan. Di area pengering yang mungkin terbuat dari batu bata, di area yang lebih berhutan mungkin palisade. Yang satu belum tentu lebih baik dari yang lain. Mereka adalah apa yang tersedia. Tidak hanya itu, para pria yang membela yang melakukan pekerjaan itu. belum lagi komandan mereka. Benteng ada di sana untuk membantu mereka.


Benteng Eropa Awal

Tidak sampai Zaman Perunggu benteng bukit dikembangkan di Eropa, yang kemudian berkembang biak di seluruh Eropa pada Zaman Besi. Struktur ini menggunakan pekerjaan tanah daripada batu sebagai bahan bangunan. Banyak pekerjaan tanah bertahan hari ini, bersama dengan bukti palisade untuk menemani parit.

Di Eropa, opida muncul pada abad ke-2 SM. Ini adalah pemukiman berbenteng yang dihuni padat, seperti opidum Manching, dan berkembang dari benteng bukit.

Bangsa Romawi menemukan pemukiman berbenteng seperti benteng bukit dan opida ketika memperluas wilayah mereka ke Eropa utara. Meskipun primitif, mereka sering efektif, dan hanya diatasi dengan penggunaan mesin pengepungan dan teknik perang pengepungan lainnya. Benteng Romawi sendiri (castra) bervariasi dari pekerjaan tanah sementara sederhana yang dilakukan oleh tentara yang sedang bergerak, hingga konstruksi batu permanen yang rumit.

Maiden Castle adalah benteng bukit Zaman Besi 2,5 kilometer (1,6 mi) barat daya Dorchester, di wilayah Inggris Dorset.] Benteng bukit adalah pemukiman berbenteng di puncak bukit yang dibangun di seluruh Inggris selama Zaman Besi.

Nama Kastil Maiden mungkin merupakan konstruksi modern yang berarti bahwa benteng bukit terlihat tidak dapat ditembus, atau bisa juga berasal dari bahasa Inggris Celtic mai-dun, yang berarti "bukit besar".

Kastil Maiden seperti yang terlihat


Apakah benteng adobe atau benteng palisade lebih dapat dipertahankan? - Sejarah

Pembaruan Terakhir: 08/MEY/2010 Disusun oleh Pete Payette - 2010 American Forts Network

Baterai Titik Atkinson
(1942 - 1944), Vancouver Barat
Sebuah emplasemen lapangan untuk satu senjata MK1 18-pon, digunakan sebagai baterai pemeriksaan untuk pertahanan pelabuhan. Pistol itu kemudian dipasang di tiang beton (yang masih ada). Situs yang terletak tepat di sebelah selatan mercusuar (dibangun 1912), bersebelahan dengan Taman Mercusuar, sebuah taman kota. Sebuah alas beton untuk stasiun pengendali api/pencari jarak terletak tepat di sebelah barat mercusuar. Dua lampu sorot dipasang di sini pada tahun 1941, satu posisi masih tersisa. Pembangkit tenaga beton untuk kedua lampu sorot juga tetap ada, terletak tepat di utara mercusuar. Sejumlah barak kayu juga masih ada di dekat mercusuar. Tidak ada akses publik ke salah satu bangunan ini di halaman stasiun mercusuar, yang berada di luar taman umum. Stasiun Sinyal Perang Pelabuhan Angkatan Laut untuk Pelabuhan Vancouver juga terletak di sini di sekitar mercusuar.

Baterai Pertama Sempit (Utara)
(1939 - 1944), Vancouver Utara, Vancouver
Baterai AMTB yang terdiri dari dua meriam cepat seberat 12 pon ditempatkan sementara di Capilano River Spit. Itu dipindahkan ke "gantry" beton tiga lantai yang terletak di bawah dermaga Jembatan Lions Gate. Tidak ada sisa. Tiga lampu sorot juga ditempatkan di sini. Satu senjata AA ditempatkan di dekatnya di Ambleside pada tahun 1942.

Baterai Batu Siwash
(1914), Stanley Park, Vancouver
Dua senjata angkatan laut 4-inci ditempatkan sementara di sini di Perang Dunia I. Sebuah lampu sorot kemudian ditempatkan di sini selama Perang Dunia II (emplasemen masih tetap ada).

Baterai Stanley Park
(1939 - 1943), Stanley Park, Vancouver
Terletak di Ferguson Point, awalnya dipersenjatai dengan dua meriam MK7 6 inci pada tunggangan MK2, kemudian diganti dengan dua meriam 4,7 inci. Senjata-senjata itu ditukar pada tahun 1942 dengan yang ada di Pulau Yorke. Tempat meriam dikuburkan pada tahun 1948. Situs ini ditandai dengan plakat Artileri Kerajaan Kanada. Majalah bawah tanah dua lantai masih ada, tetapi tidak ada akses publik. The Officer's Mess masih ada, sekarang tergabung dalam restoran Teahouse. Pos pengamatan baterai dan pembangkit tenaga listrik dihancurkan pada tahun 1963. Dua lampu sorot juga dipasang di sini. Taman umum seluas 1000 hektar awalnya dibuat pada tahun 1888. Lihat juga Vancouver Park Board - Stanley Park

Baterai Titik Abu-abu
(1914, 1939 - 1950/1968), Vancouver
Terletak di Point Gray di Universitas British Columbia saat ini, Museum Antropologi. Dalam Perang Dunia I dua senjata lapangan 60-pon diposisikan di sini. Dalam Perang Dunia II dua senjata MK7 6-inci awalnya ditempatkan di sini pada tunggangan sementara, segera digantikan oleh tiga senjata MK7 6-inci pada tunggangan MK2. Satu sumber membuat referensi ke Fort Gray di Perang Dunia II. Ditempatkan dalam status penjaga pada tahun 1948. Pada tahun 1950 barak digunakan sebagai asrama tambahan untuk mahasiswa University of British Columbia (alias " Fort Camp "). Baterai OP digunakan sebagai stasiun pemancar radio militer sampai tahun 1960-an. Reservasi dipindahkan ke provinsi pada tahun 1968. Satu posisi senjata dan daerah kanton dihancurkan pada tahun 1973 untuk pembangunan museum. Dua posisi senjata lainnya masih ada di setiap ujung museum. Pistol pemeriksaan (1939 - 1942) adalah meriam Hotchkiss seberat 6 pon. Sebuah pistol AA 3,7 inci berada di titik agak jauh dari benteng. Dua senjata AA tambahan juga ada di daerah itu. Dua lampu sorot ditempatkan di pantai (menara beton dan pembangkit tenaga listrik masih ada).

Baterai Steveston
(1939 - 1943), Steveston
Sebuah emplasemen lapangan untuk dua senjata MK1 18-pon. Baterai AA juga ditempatkan di sini. Satu senjata 18-pon kemudian diganti dengan dua senjata 25-pon pada tahun 1943. Terletak di dekat tepi utara mulut lengan selatan Sungai Fraser, di ujung Jalan Raya Steveston di tanggul barat Pulau Lulu, utara kota.

Baterai Teluk Batas
(1942 - 1945), Teluk Batas
Baterai anti-pesawat ditempatkan di sini untuk melindungi lapangan terbang militer terdekat.

CATATAN: Pos Komando Kebakaran Perang Dunia II (1942 - 1944) pernah berlokasi di "Wadsley" (Vancouver Barat), dekat Taman McKechnie. Kemudian diubah menjadi wisma pribadi, tetapi dihancurkan pada tahun 2006 atau 2007. Sebuah pos pengamatan baterai terletak di Prospect Point, First Narrows (Selatan). Dari tahun 1943 - 1945 ada empat lokasi tambahan dengan masing-masing empat meriam AA 3,7 inci, yang menggantikan meriam Bofors 40mm yang dipasang pada tahun 1942, yang terletak di Little Mountain, Lynnmour , Burnaby , dan Sea Island (Bandara Internasional Vancouver). Pangkalan Pesawat Amfibi Angkatan Udara Kerajaan Kanada terletak di Pantai Jericho, sekarang menjadi taman kota. Celemek beton dan tiga bangunan stasiun asli masih tersisa, sekarang digunakan kembali secara adaptif.

Info Vancouver dikumpulkan dari "Vancouver Defended: A History of the Men and Guns of the Lower Mainland Defences, 1859-1949" oleh Peter Moogk, 1978, Antonson Publishing.

Terima kasih khusus kepada David Morgan dan Robert Zink dari Kelompok Studi Pertahanan Pantai yang telah memberikan info tentang Pertahanan Artileri Pantai British Columbia.
Juga terima kasih kepada John Eckersley (CDSG) dan Vic Stevenson untuk koreksi dan pembaruan.

Benteng India Homulchesan
(tanggal tidak diketahui), dekat Vancouver Utara
Sebuah desa Indian palisated pernah terletak di sini di Cagar Alam Capilano saat ini. Tidak ada sisa.
(info milik Mike Clevan)

pos vancouver
(1889 - 1920), Vancouver
Pos A Hudson's Bay Co. Menggantikan Fort Langley sebagai depot HBC utama. Toko HBC pertama di daerah ini dibangun pada tahun 1887 di Cordova Street di Gastown , ditutup pada tahun 1893. Gudang HBC utama juga dibangun di Gastown pada tahun 1895 di 321 Water Street, digunakan seperti itu sampai tahun 1960-an (masih ada sebagai Rumah Hudson ). Lihat juga Sejarah Toko HBC Vancouver dari HBC Heritage

Barak Westminster Baru
(1858 - 1864?), New Westminster
Ibukota kolonial sampai digantikan oleh Victoria pada tahun 1866. Insinyur Kerajaan dikirim ke sini untuk memberikan hukum dan ketertiban terhadap pemberontakan yang dipimpin Amerika dan ancaman aneksasi setelah demam emas tahun 1858 di lembah Sungai Fraser.
(info tambahan milik Mike Clevan)

Fort Langley (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1827 - 1886/1889), Benteng Langley FORT WIKI
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. Situs asli terletak di hilir Derby di Derby Reach Regional Park. Sebuah benteng baru dibangun pada tahun 1838 di lokasi baru, diperbaiki pada tahun 1839 setelah kebakaran, tetapi dibangun kembali sepenuhnya pada tahun 1840. Benteng ini memiliki gudang tahun 1840 yang masih ada, dan Rumah Besar yang dibangun kembali pada tahun 1957, benteng barat laut, dan tempat tinggal para Pelayan. Belakangan, benteng ini menjadi pos perbekalan untuk demam emas tahun 1858. Tembok palisade dibongkar pada tahun 1864. British Columbia dinyatakan sebagai koloni mahkota di sini pada tahun 1858. Ibu kota kolonial segera dipindahkan ke New Westminster sebagai lokasi yang lebih dapat dipertahankan secara militer daripada Fort Langley atau situs sebelumnya di Derby. Lihat juga The Children of Fort Langley oleh Lisa Peppan || Lihat juga Fort to Fort Trail

Fort Hope (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1848 - 1889/92), Benteng Harapan WIKI
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. (catatan HBC dimulai pada tahun 1860). Itu juga digunakan selama demam emas 1858, ketika kota itu secara resmi didirikan. Yang menarik di kota ini adalah Museum Harapan dan kompleks Pusat Pengunjung di Water Avenue.

Benteng Yale
(Museum Yale dan Situs Bersejarah)
(1848 - 1849, 1864 - 1889), Yale FORT WIKI
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. (catatan HBC mencakup tahun 1864 - 1889). Pos pertama ditinggalkan demi Fort Hope yang letaknya lebih baik. Kota ini secara resmi didirikan pada tahun 1858 selama demam emas. Area Warisan BC ini dikelola oleh Yale and District Historical Society. Lihat juga Kota Demam Emas Yale dari BC Heritage

Postingan McDougal
(1861 - tidak diketahui), Princeton
Sebuah pos perdagangan bulu.

Pos Tepi Barat
(1820-an - 1860-an), Tepi Barat
Sebuah pos perdagangan bulu.

Benteng India Lilloet
(tanggal tidak diketahui), Lillooet
Sebuah desa India palisad pernah terletak di sini. Tidak ada sisa.
(info milik Mike Clevan)

Benteng Kamloops
(1812 - 1932), BENTENG Kamloops WIKI
Sebuah pos American Pacific Fur Company awalnya berlokasi di sini pada awal tahun 1812, juga dikenal sebagai She-Whaps Post. Ini adalah pos perdagangan Amerika paling utara di Wilayah Oregon yang lama. Pada bulan Oktober 1813 itu dibeli dan kemudian ditinggalkan oleh North West Company, yang telah membangun pos pesaing di sisi lain sungai (Thompson River Post) (juga 1812). Hudson's Bay Co. mengambil alih kendali NWCo. pos pada tahun 1822, dan dibangun kembali pada tahun 1840-an. Pos HBC kedua dibangun pada tahun 1861 di seberang sungai untuk menggantikan yang pertama. Replika pos HBC kedua ada di Museum dan Arsip Kamloops di 207 Seymour Street.

Sebuah desa India Shuswap palisade (tanggal ?) pernah terletak di sini. Tidak ada sisa.

Benteng Gembala
(Area Konservasi Fort Shepherd)
(1857 - 1870), dekat Trail
Pos Hudson's Bay Co., terletak di tepi barat Sungai Columbia enam kilometer selatan kota, dibangun untuk menggantikan Fort Colvile di sisi perbatasan Amerika, dan untuk melayani perdagangan India Sinixt (Namun, Fort Colvile tetap berada di beroperasi sampai tahun 1871). Ditutup sebentar pada tahun 1862. Dibuka kembali pada tahun 1863 selama Demam Emas Kootenay. Jejak Dewdney dari Hope ke Wildhorse melalui Fort Shepherd. Pos yang ditinggalkan terbakar pada tahun 1872. Sebuah tugu batu (1951) menandai situs tersebut.

Benteng Steele
(Kota Warisan Benteng Steele)
(1888 - 1898 ?), Benteng Steele
Kota ini awalnya bernama Galbraith's Ferry. Itu berganti nama pada tahun 1888 dengan pendirian pos. Ini adalah pos Polisi North West Mounted permanen pertama di sebelah barat Pegunungan Rocky. Ada lebih dari 60 rumah dan bangunan lain yang dipugar di kota bersejarah yang hidup ini. Uang masuk.

Pos Kootenay (2)
(1860 - 1880-an), dekat Roosville
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. yang sudah lama berdiri harus dipindahkan melintasi perbatasan internasional yang baru disurvei dari Montana. Juga dikenal sebagai Postingan John Linklater saat ini. Setelah penemuan emas di Wild Horse Creek, pos dipindahkan ke Joseph's Prairie (1862 ?). Akhirnya digantikan oleh Fort Steele. (Lihat juga MONTANA halaman 3)

Kootenae House (1) (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1807 - 1808), dekat Wilmer
Sebuah pos perdagangan untuk North West Company yang terletak di utara Danau Windemere. Kemudian dipindahkan ke selatan ke Montana saat ini, dan tinggal di sana selama beberapa dekade sampai politik memaksa HBC untuk pindah kembali ke utara melintasi batas internasional pada tahun 1860 (lihat di atas).

Postingan Beavermouth
(1884 - 1885), dekat Lapangan
Sebuah pos NWMP sementara dibangun untuk mengawasi, dan menjaga perdamaian antara, geng kereta api melalui Kicking Horse Pass.

Perkemahan Perahu
(1811 - tidak diketahui), dekat Mica Creek
Pos North West Co. di Sungai Wood dekat mulutnya di Sungai Columbia (daerah sekarang terendam di bawah Danau Kinbasket).

Postingan Lac d'Orignal
(Taman Provinsi Gunung Robson)
(1810 ? - tidak diketahui), dekat Danau Moose
Pos North West Co. di dekat Yellowhead Pass.

Benteng Alexandria (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1821 - 1867), Alexandria FORT WIKI
Sebuah pos North West Co. dibangun sesaat sebelum merger dengan Hudson's Bay Company (catatan HBC dimulai pada tahun 1824). Dibangun kembali pada tahun 1836. Terutama digunakan sebagai gudang penyimpanan barang-barang yang menuju utara dari Kamloops ke Danau Stuart dan Danau Fraser. Tumbuh menjadi kamp tenda besar selama demam emas 1858-62. Beberapa bangunan masih berdiri setelah tahun 1881 sampai dihancurkan pada tahun 1915.

Benteng Chilcotin
(1829 - 1844), dekat Redstone
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. (catatan HBC mencakup tahun 1837 - 1840), terletak tepat di atas pertemuan Sungai Chilcotin dan Chilko. Orang India Tsilhqot'in umumnya tidak mendukung jabatan tersebut (mereka dikenal sebagai kelompok yang agak tidak kooperatif dan suka berperang).
(info milik Jim Wright)

Postingan Quesnel
(1864 - 1904), Quesnel
Pos Hudson's Bay Co.

Posting Barkerville
(1851 - 1884), Barkerville
Pos Hudson's Bay Co.

Benteng Kluskus
(1844 - tidak diketahui), dekat Nazco
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. yang menggantikan Fort Chilcotin. Terletak di Danau Kluskus di sebelah barat kota. Posting ini juga tidak berhasil karena ketidakpedulian orang India.

Benteng Essington
(1835 - tidak diketahui), dekat Bella Coola ?
Pos Hudson's Bay Co. di Bella Coola River, menurut "National Atlas of Canada" (1974).

Stasiun Radar Pulau Laba-laba
(1943 - 1945), Pulau Laba-laba
Radar pertahanan udara peringatan dini Chain Home Low RCAF terletak di sini, di selatan Bella Bella di pintu masuk selatan Queens Sound, di dalam Area Konservasi Hakai Luxvbalis saat ini.

Bella Bella Pertahanan Perang Dunia II
(1940-an), Bella Bella
Baterai AMTB 75mm dua senjata dan baterai AA ditempatkan di sini untuk melindungi pangkalan pesawat amfibi militer.

Benteng McLoughlin
(1833 - 1843/1882), Pulau Campbell FORT WIKI
Pos Perusahaan Teluk Hudson di Milbanke Sound. Lokasi tepatnya belum ditentukan, mungkin di sisi timur laut pulau dekat Bella Bella Lama (Waglisla) . Juga dikenal sebagai Bella Bella Post. Ditinggalkan untuk Fort Victoria, meskipun situs itu masih digunakan sebentar-sebentar sampai 1882.

MEMBUTUHKAN INFORMASI LEBIH LANJUT:
Kota: Benteng Kecil di Sungai Thompson, selatan Clearwater .


Presidio San Agustín del Tucson Asli

Pada pagi yang hangat dan lembap tanggal 20 Agustus 1775, Presidio Tucson didirikan oleh Letnan Kolonel Angkatan Darat Spanyol Reguler Hugo O’Conor. O’Conor, keturunan Irlandia, adalah Inspektur Jenderal dan telah membuat namanya terkenal di perbatasan Spanyol Baru. Pembangunan benteng mungkin dimulai pada bulan Oktober berikutnya. Garnisun Tubac dan keluarga pindah ke utara pada akhir Oktober 1776 menduduki tanggul tanah dan pagar yang merupakan benteng Tucson. Korespondensi pertama ditulis dari Tucson oleh Kolonel Juan Bautista de Anza pada November 1776.

Gambar di atas adalah salah satu dari sedikit sketsa bersejarah yang menunjukkan Presidio San Agustín del Tucson asli. Kita bisa melihat orang-orang berkunjung ke luar dan lebih banyak orang berkumpul di kapel kecil.

Benteng itu kecil dan dibangun dengan buruk. Pada tahun 1782, setelah serangan besar Apache, tembok batako setinggi 8 hingga 12 kaki dibangun dengan panjang sekitar 700 kaki di setiap sisinya. Pos tersebut terus diperbaiki hingga mencapai ukuran maksimum sekitar 11 hektar. Tanah yang tertutup tembok ini terletak di tempat yang sekarang menjadi pusat kota Tucson, kira-kira di dalam jalan-jalan Gereja, Washington, dan Kongres, dan sampai ke tepi Sungai Santa Cruz (yang mengalir pada waktu itu.)

Peta ini, berdasarkan Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn tahun 1883, dibuat pada tahun 1940-an.

Peta ini, berdasarkan Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn tahun 1883, dibuat pada tahun 1940-an. Garis merah di mana dinding Presidio asli berada, pada saat ini sebagian besar terkubur oleh konstruksi yang lebih baru.

Pada tahun 1821, Spanyol menerima Kemerdekaan Meksiko setelah konflik sebelas tahun. Bagi penghuni Tucson Presidio, kehidupan tidak banyak berubah. Tentara Meksiko tidak datang selama beberapa tahun dan ketika itu terjadi, bendera Spanyol diturunkan dan bendera Meksiko dipasang.

Presidio tetap digunakan sebagai benteng pelindung sampai Amerika memasuki Tucson pada Maret 1856. Pada saat itu, penduduk tertarik pada konstruksi baru dan batu bata dari Presidio diambil dan digunakan.
Toko suvenir dan ruang pameran Presidio Museum saat ini bertempat di Siqueiros-Jacome House, dibangun pada tahun 1860-an dan 1870-an. Tanah untuk membuat batu bata adobe ditambang dari lubang besar di halaman belakang.

Segmen terakhir dari tembok itu diruntuhkan pada tahun 1918. Lokasi tembok Presidio asli hari ini ditandai di trotoar Tucson's, dan menunjukkan seberapa luas benteng itu.

Rekonstruksi hari ini terletak di situs sudut timur laut benteng. Tanda di tanah menunjukkan lokasi dinding, dengan dinding baru diimbangi untuk mempertahankan fondasi adobe asli.


Ontario Selatan (Timur)

Baie de Kent Posting
(1720 - tidak diketahui), Carrying Place
Sebuah pos perdagangan Prancis. Nama India "Kent " kemudian di-inggriskan menjadi "Quinte" oleh para pemukim Loyalis pada tahun 1780-an.

Lihat juga penanda bersejarah Carrying Place of the Bay of Quinte (Situs Bersejarah Nasional) dan Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada

Benteng Kent
(1812 - 1815), Tempat Gantung
Rekonstruksi rumah kayu balok dibangun di sini pada tahun 1990, tetapi pada tahun 2000, karena sengketa properti, bangunan itu dipindahkan ke halaman Museum Taman Mariners di South Bay .

Blockhouse Pulau Amherst
(1839 - tidak diketahui), Pulau Amherst
Sebuah benteng pertahanan pernah terletak di sini, dibangun sebagai tanggapan terhadap Pemberontakan Patriot 1837-38.

Fort Frontenac (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1673 - sekarang) FORT WIKI
Sebuah benteng kayu Perancis awalnya disebut Fort Cataraqui. Itu diganti namanya dan dibangun kembali dengan batu pada tahun 1675. Prancis memiliki tiga baterai pekerjaan tanah luar pada tahun 1755 - 1758. Mereka ditinggalkan ke Inggris. Inggris merebut dan menghancurkan benteng pada Agustus 1758, menggunakan salah satu bangunan luar Prancis sebagai baterai pengepungan tiga meriam, dan juga membangun baterai pengepungan dua meriam tambahan. Inggris memperbesar dan membangun kembali benteng pada tahun 1783. Itu berganti nama menjadi T te de Pont Barracks pada tahun 1789. Pos saat ini dibangun dari tahun 1819 - 1824. Perempatan Perwira (1827), barak pria (1827), aula / barak (1847), dan Gudang Komisariat (1820) masih ada, serta beberapa bangunan modern yang dibangun untuk meniru arsitektur periode tersebut. Reruntuhan fondasi benteng Prancis asli sebagian telah digali di Ontario Street dan Place d'Armes, dan juga di taman tengah kompleks baru. Pos baru ini berganti nama lagi pada tahun 1939 kembali ke nama asli Perancis. Sekarang menjadi rumah bagi Sekolah Staf dan Komando Angkatan Darat Kanada, sejak 1947. Lihat juga Penanda bersejarah

Fort Henry (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1812 - 1891) BENTENG WIKI
Benteng kedua dibangun di situs yang pertama (sebuah benteng kayu) selama 1832-37. Dua menara Martello kecil dibangun di kedua sisi parit yang mengapit pada tahun 1846. Inggris pergi pada tahun 1870, dan benteng itu diawaki oleh Milisi Kanada hingga tahun 1891, sebagai Sekolah Senjata Kanada. Itu kemudian ditinggalkan dan menjadi museum pada tahun 1938 setelah restorasi. Selama Perang Dunia I digunakan sebagai kamp tahanan politik, dan selama Perang Dunia II digunakan sebagai kamp tawanan perang Jerman. Ini adalah benteng batu terbesar di Kanada di sebelah barat Kota Qu bec . Dipulihkan ke penampilan tahun 1860-an. Uang masuk. Lihat juga Penanda bersejarah #1 || Penanda bersejarah #2

Kingston Blockhouses
(1812 - 1815)
Enam blockhouses dibangun di sepanjang garis palisated di sisi barat pemukiman asli. Mereka masih ada sampai sekitar tahun 1900. Blockhouse #1 terletak di Gore and Ontario Streets #2 di Wellington dan West Streets #3 (dengan baterai) di West dan Sydenham Streets #4 (dengan baterai) di Princess and Clergy Streets #5 (dengan baterai) di dekat Sydenham dan North Streets dan sebuah blockhouse kecil terletak di West dan Ontario Streets. Dua baterai senjata juga terletak di sepanjang palisade di Sydenham dan William Streets dan di Sydenham dan Ordnance Streets. Barak terletak di belakang baterai di Jalan Sydenham dan William dan juga di Taman Artileri, yang terletak di Jalan Barak dan Bagot. Unit Inggris terakhir meninggalkan Barak Taman Artileri pada tahun 1871. Di Pulau Ular, sekitar tujuh mil barat daya, adalah Rumah Blokir Pulau Ular (1813 - 1815) dan baterai satu senjata. Menara Martello kemudian direncanakan untuk lokasi ini, tetapi tidak pernah dibangun. Lihat juga Kingston Militia Garrison 1837-38 penanda bersejarah

Baterai Pasar
(1820-an? - 1840-an?)
Sebuah baterai senjata besar yang mempertahankan pelabuhan melawan Amerika. Itu dihancurkan pada tahun 1885. Itu terletak di Princess and Ontario Streets, dekat Balai Kota. Itu digantikan oleh Shoal Martello Tower.

Baterai Titik Missisagua
(1812 - tidak diketahui)
Sebuah baterai senjata besar yang mempertahankan pelabuhan melawan Amerika, terletak di ujung Gore Street.

Menara Murney Martello (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1846 - 1890) BENTENG WIKI
Terletak di King Street, di sepanjang tepi pantai di MacDonald Park. Digunakan terutama sebagai barak setelah tahun 1849, tidak bersenjata lengkap sampai tahun 1862. Dioperasikan sebagai museum sejak tahun 1925 oleh Kingston Historical Society. Uang masuk. Lihat juga entri Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada #2 || Penanda bersejarah

Murney's Point Blockhouse , sebuah blockhouse kayu dengan baterai pekerjaan tanah, terletak di sini pada tahun 1812.

Benteng Frederick
(Situs Sejarah Nasional Bangunan Point Frederick)
(Sekolah Tinggi Militer Kerajaan Kanada)
(1813 - 1870/sekarang) FORT WIKI
Terletak di halaman Canadian Royal Military College , didirikan pada tahun 1876. Museum Royal Military College berada di Martello Tower (1846). Benteng sebelumnya (rumah balok kayu dengan baterai batu) dihancurkan pada tahun 1846, sebagian dari fondasi baterai batu masih terlihat. Galangan Kapal Angkatan Laut Kerajaan Kingston berada di sini di Teluk Angkatan Laut dari tahun 1792 - 1852. Depot Angkatan Laut Angkatan Laut Provinsi pertama kali didirikan di sini pada tahun 1789. Rumah Blok Point Frederick dibangun pada tahun 1791 untuk perlindungannya. Kediaman Komandan RMC adalah bekas Rumah Sakit Royal Navy, dibangun pada tahun 1814. Bangunan/struktur bersejarah lainnya di Point Frederick termasuk lunette/guardhouse (1846), magazine (1846), dan "Stone Frigate" (1820), Royal Navy's Residence gudang dan barak.

Kingston Martello Towers (Situs Bersejarah Nasional) ?
(1846 - 1870 ? atau 1890 ?)
Menara senjata Masonry dibangun antara tahun 1846 dan 1848. Empat menara Martello dibangun di menara Kingston the Murney dan Fort Frederick (tercantum terpisah di atas), ditambah Menara Victoria (alias Menara Beting) di Flora MacDonald Marina (alias Confederation Basin) ( FORT WIKI ) dan Cathcart Keraguan (alias Menara Pulau Cedar) dekat Benteng Henry. ( FORT WIKI ) Kedua menara ini tidak dapat diakses oleh masyarakat umum. Empat menara Kingston mewakili puncak desain menara Martello di Amerika Utara, sebelum munculnya artileri senapan membuat mereka usang.

CATATAN: Pertahanan Kingston yang semula direncanakan adalah enam benteng dan lima menara Martello pada tahun 1829. Karena keterbatasan anggaran, hanya Benteng Henry dan dua menara asli yang dibangun (Murney dan Pulau Cedar). Dua menara lainnya kemudian ditambahkan ke rencana awal (Shoal dan Fort Frederick).

Yang juga menarik di area ini adalah Museum Komunikasi dan Elektronik Militer Angkatan Darat Kanada, yang terletak di sebelah timur kota di CFB Kingston , di 95 Craftsman Blvd. (Jalan Raya Provinsi 2).

Postingan P r
(1677 - tidak diketahui), dekat Codes Corner ?
Sebuah pos perdagangan Prancis yang terletak di Sungai Cataraqui.

Rumah Blok Kingston Mills
(1832 - 1870?), Pojok Kode
Salah satu dari empat benteng pertahanan yang dibangun untuk melindungi Kanal Rideau, jalur air militer yang dimaksudkan sebagai alternatif Sungai St. Lawrence jika terjadi serangan Amerika. Blockhouse dipulihkan pada tahun 1967. Lihat juga Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada

Blockhouse Newboro
(1832 - 1870 ?), Newboro
Salah satu dari empat blockhouse yang dibangun di Kanal Rideau. Itu dibangun kembali pada tahun 1888, secara ekstensif memodifikasi struktur. Telah direnovasi dan dikembalikan ke penampilan aslinya. Lihat juga Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada

Blockhouse Sempit Atas
(1832 - 1870?), dekat Newboro
Salah satu dari empat blockhouse yang dibangun untuk melindungi Kanal Rideau. Itu dipulihkan pada tahun 1968. Lihat juga Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada

Blockhouse Merrickville (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1832 - 1870?), Merrickville
Yang terbesar dari empat blockhouse yang terletak di Kanal Rideau. Dijaga oleh milisi pada tahun 1837 - 1838. Itu dipulihkan pada tahun 1965 sebagai museum oleh Merrickville dan District Historical Society. Lihat juga entri Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada #2 || Penanda bersejarah #1 || Penanda bersejarah #2

Blockhouse Rapids Burritts
(1832), Burritts Rapids
Sebuah blockhouse dimulai di sini, tetapi konstruksi dihentikan. Lantai pertama dari batu ditutup dengan atap kayu pada tahun 1836. Struktur rangka dua lantai dibangun di atas fondasinya pada tahun 1915. Struktur aslinya diruntuhkan pada tahun 1969 dan diganti dengan lockstation yang sekarang.

Rumah Komisariat Kota
(1827 - 1927), Ottawa
Itu dibangun dan digunakan oleh Royal Engineers sebagai gudang dan depot selama pembangunan Kanal Rideau. Setelah 1856 bangunan itu digunakan untuk penyimpanan militer. Sekarang rumah Museum Bytown (sejak 1952). Ada sebuah benteng besar yang direncanakan untuk ujung Bytown (Ottawa) dari Kanal Rideau, tetapi tidak pernah dibangun. Kantor Insinyur Kerajaan terletak di seberang kanal dari Rumah Komisariat. Itu serupa dalam konstruksi, dan dibongkar pada tahun 1928. Pondasinya masih terlihat di dekat kunci. Barak dan rumah sakit untuk pekerja kanal dan tentara terletak di Bukit Barak hingga tahun 1859, sekarang menjadi lokasi kompleks Parlemen Kanada. Bytown berganti nama menjadi Ottawa pada tahun 1855. Lihat juga Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Kanada
Lihat juga Rideau Canal Ottawa Lockstations oleh Ken Watson

CATATAN: Ada 12 lockstation batu "yang dapat dipertahankan" lainnya yang dibangun di sepanjang kanal dari tahun 1838 - 1842. Sebagian besar masih ada. Kepemilikan kanal dipindahkan dari Departemen Persenjataan Inggris ke Provinsi Kanada Atas pada tahun 1856.

Rumah Blok Gananoque
(1813 - 1859), Gananoque
Sebuah blockhouse dengan pagar kayu segi delapan dengan lima senjata. Itu kemudian ditinggalkan dan dijual ke pemilik tanah pribadi. Penanda bersejarah

Blockhouse Pulau Jembatan
(1814 - 1815), dekat Mallorytown Landing
Sebuah blockhouse dengan dua senjata, dengan baterai melingkar satu senjata. Sebuah penanda terletak di Mallorytown Landing. Pulau ini adalah tempat perhentian antara Brockville dan Gananoque.

Blockhouse Brockville
(1839 - 1850), Brockville
Sebuah blockhouse kayu terletak di Blockhouse Island (alias Refuge Island atau Grant's Island) sebagai akibat dari Pemberontakan Patriot tahun 1837-38. Itu dihancurkan pada tahun 1860 setelah pulau itu bergabung dengan daratan untuk proyek kereta api.

Galangan Kapal Pointe au Baril
(1758 - 1759), dekat Maitland
Sebuah galangan kapal berbenteng Perancis didirikan setelah jatuhnya dan penangkapan Fort Frontenac pada Agustus 1758 ke Inggris. Halaman kecil dilindungi oleh pekerjaan tanah dan palisade. Dua kapal kecil diluncurkan di sini pada tahun 1759, tetapi situs itu ditinggalkan bersama dengan Fort La Pr sentation (New York) pada bulan Agustus 1759, garnisun dan perbekalan dipindahkan ke Fort L vis di Pulau Chimney (lihat juga NEW YORK halaman 9 ) . Terletak sekitar 5,5 mil hulu (barat daya) dari Ogdensburg, NY.

Pos Perdagangan La Galette
(1682 ? - tidak diketahui), Prescott
Sebuah pos perdagangan Prancis kecil. Ditinggalkan dan ditempati kembali beberapa kali. Nama ini sering diterapkan pada Fort La Pr sentation di seberang Sungai St. Lawrence di Ogdensburg , New York.

Benteng Wellington (Situs Bersejarah Nasional)
(1813 - 1869/1923), Benteng Prescott WIKI
Benteng ini awalnya merupakan benteng pekerjaan tanah, dengan baterai pantai di tepi sungai, pada tahun 1813 - 1815. Benteng kedua (1837) dibangun di atas reruntuhan benteng pertama. Ada tiga struktur asli yang dikelilingi oleh pekerjaan tanah, palisade, dan parit kering. Ada benteng batu, dan tempat tinggal dan jamban Perwira yang dipulihkan. Setelah tahun 1869 benteng tersebut digunakan sebagai depot militer provinsi dan kamp pelatihan milisi yang terputus-putus. Uang masuk. Pada bulan Agustus 2011 sebuah kapal perang Inggris tahun 1817 yang diawetkan (mungkin HMS Radcliff ) dipindahkan ke sini dari Taman Nasional St. Lawrence di Mallorytown Landing , di mana telah dipajang sejak tahun 1967, dan pusat pengunjung baru dibangun untuk memajang kapal tersebut, dibuka pada bulan Mei 2012. Lihat juga History of Fort Wellington oleh Robert B. Stewart || Benteng Wellington dalam Perang 1812 oleh Robert Henderson
Penanda bersejarah #1 || Penanda bersejarah #2

Di dekatnya di 356 East Street adalah Barak Prescott (1810 - 1818), awalnya merupakan tempat tinggal berbenteng Kolonel Edward Jessup. Itu juga digunakan sebagai rumah sakit garnisun untuk Fort Wellington setelah 1814. Ini adalah struktur militer asli tertua yang masih ada di Ontario. Itu dioperasikan sebagai restoran dan museum bertema sejarah dari 1990 hingga 2001 (status sekarang ??).
Penanda bersejarah

Di dekat Windmill Point adalah Battle of the Windmill NHS (November 1838). Kincir angin batu ini kemudian digunakan sebagai tempat pengintaian militer hingga tahun 1840 ( Tempat Pengamatan Titik Kincir Angin ), dan kemudian dibangun kembali sebagai mercusuar pada tahun 1874, digunakan hingga tahun 1975. Biaya masuk.

Point Iroquois Blockhouses
(1812 - 1815), dekat Iroquois
Two redoubts with blockhouses, and a detached river battery, were started here, but were never finished before the War of 1812 ended. In 1812 the first British fort on the point had not been completed, or named. A second fort was built on the riverbank in 1814, but U.S. troops did not attack, so the fort was nicknamed " Fort Needless ".

The town of Iroquois was the largest residential and business community along the St. Lawrence River to be entirely relocated during construction of the St. Lawrence Deep Waterway during the early 1950's. Its original location was across the Galop Canal from Iroquois Point, a headland famous in legend and history as a camping ground of the Iroquois. The point's proximity to the Canadian-U.S. mid-river boundary line caused it to be selected as the Canadian terminus of the international dam built to control water levels for the waterway. A new canal, cut through the headland to avoid the dam, turned Iroquois Point into a small island. The relocated town of Iroquois is north of the original site. United Empire Loyalists settled the place in 1776. The post office, established in 1789, was called Matilda after the township. In 1856 the post office name was changed to Iroquois .

Nearby, east of Morrisburg , is the Battle of Chrysler's Farm NHS historic marker (November 1813).

Cornwall Blockhouse
(1815), Cornwall
A blockhouse/barracks with a four-gun shore battery which was never finished. Located near French Point.
See also Cornwall and the War of 1812 from City of Cornwall

Raisin River Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815), Lancaster
A blockhouse and two-gun battery protected the road and bridge crossing the river. It was accidently burned down after the war.

Lac d'Orignal Post
(1842 - unknown), L'Orignal
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Ottawa River (Rivi re des Outaouais).

Post des Outaouais
(1613 - unknown), Ottawa
An early French trade post on the Ottawa River (Rivi re des Outaouais).

Bonne Chere River Post
(1825 - unknown), near Castleford
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the mouth of the Bonnechere River.

Matawashka Post
(1827 - unknown), near Matawatchan ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post on the Madawaska River.

Tomississippi Post
(1827 - unknown), near Cloyne ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located at the headwaters of the Mississippi River, also near the headwaters of the Skootamatta River.

Fort Stewart
(unknown dates), Fort Stewart
No data. Located in northern Hastings County.

Camp Petawawa
(Canadian Forces Base Petawawa)
(1905 - present), near Petawawa
Founded in 1905, the base was created by the Department of Militia and Defence upon the purchase of 22,430 acres (90.8 km2) of mostly agricultural property from local residents. The Royal Canadian Horse and Garrison Artillery from Kingston were the first to train here during the summer of 1905. In 1906 the Royal Canadian Engineers constructed huts, stables and installed water and gas systems. By 1907 combined training and tactical exercises were conducted by various other units such as the Royal Canadian Dragoons, the Royal Canadian Regiment, and units from the Medical and Ordnance Corps. The first military aircraft flight in Canada took place at Petawawa on July 31, 1909 when J.A.D. McCurdy and F.W. Baldwin flew the "Silver Dart" in the presence of military observers. From December 1914 to May 1916 the camp was used as an internment camp for 750 German and Austrian POWs. At the same time the Canada Car and Foundry Company had developed three inch shells and were being tested at the camp by Russian artillery. From May 1916 to 1918, over 10,700 Canadian troops were trained here before being sent overseas.
During World War II, three training centres (two artillery and one engineering) were established. In September 1942 about 12,500 troops were stationed on the base. The peak load was reached during 1943 when approximately 20,000 troops were undergoing training at one time. Petawawa was also the site of Internment Camp No. 33 located at Centre Lake it held 645 civilian internees. There were 28 different nationalities, the majority being Germans.
In 1947 the training of militia and regular units of the Canadian Army resumed. Upon being given the status of a permanent camp, it was officially designated "Camp Petawawa" in May 1951. The unification of the Canadian Forces resulted in Camp Petawawa being renamed Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Petawawa in 1968.

Joachim Post
(1851 - unknown), near Rolphton
A Hudson's Bay Co. post located on the Ottawa River at the Des Joachims Rapids.

ALSO OF INTEREST: Located just west of Ottawa at Carp is the Diefenbunker - Central Emergency Government Headquarters (NHS), built in 1959-61 to protect high-level government and military leaders during the Cold War. Decomissioned in 1994, now open to the public as the Canadian Cold War Museum. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places

NEED MORE INFO:
Towns / Villages: Fort Stewart in northern Hastings County.


Fort Ross rich with historical, cultural significance

Sitting here, watching the impossible happen all around, I have Fort Ross on my mind.

The news is that the state will "close" Annadel (however THAT could be accomplished!) as well as General Vallejo's old "Castle in the Wilderness," the Petaluma Adobe. It's hard not to be fearful that the oldest and most important historical site north of San Francisco Bay may well be next.

The fate of the Russian fort has been a concern most of the summer. There's even been a couple of Fort Ross "jokes," if you can call them that, like the comment made by a friend whose pragmatism outweighs her sense of history. "If they close Fort Ross," she says, "We will lose the best free restroom stop between Jenner and Sea Ranch."

That's one way to look at it.

In a more serious vein, historians from at least two nations look at it as a cultural imperative.

They believe that Fort Ross Historic Park is far too important to close. And the fact that it appears to be on the short list (whatever and wherever that "list" is) means that "saving" Fort Ross - that is keeping it open - has become a cause c??re.

I know that California's parks, particularly its historic parks, are all unique. But Fort Ross' importance reaches way beyond Sonoma County and even California's history.

This southernmost outpost of Imperial Russia, dating back two centuries - the earliest north of San Francisco Bay - has been telling its remarkable stories to visitors since 1903, when the state took possession of its weathered buildings, even then nearly 100 years old.

The stories from the Russian years at Bodega Bay and Fort Ross (1809-1841) involve a cadre of botanists, naturalists, agronomists, archeologists, artists and even a future saint.

Robin Joy, the park's interpretive specialist who has spent more than a decade on the staff, describes her reaction to the threatened closure list as "in shock."

Joy has her own list, reciting with pride all the factors that make Fort Ross stand out from every other park on the North Coast: Its status as a national monument and as the only Russian settlement in the contiguous United States the continuous stream of foreign visitors, including Russians and native Alaskans with Kashia Pomo descendants its place as the site of the first windmill, the first glass windows, the first European varietal grapevines, the earliest shipbuilding and the botanical "discovery" of the California poppy.

It also was home to the lengthy stay of a Russian priest who would become St. Innocent in the Orthodox Church the archeology project of the University of California untold numbers of school overnights, and for the kids' part - far and away the finest cannon presentation in the state.

Her list is long. It's no wonder the possibility of closure has caught the attention of the Russians, prompting a visit from the Russian ambassador in late August and a letter to the governor setting forth the official interest of that nation.

RTR Planet, a Russian international television and radio broadcasting service, last week visited the fort to alert the 75 percent of urban Russians it claims as viewers and listeners to the threat. The Fort Ross visit will be broadcast on the Russian channel today.

Joy, along with the many volunteers who are members of the extremely active Fort Ross Interpretive Association, are hoping that Russian businesses and individuals will support the association's contingency plan. They hope to keep the visitors' center open, the artifacts protected and the necessary support systems, like lights and water (and those precious restrooms) in place, should worse come to worst.

The idea that "foreign aid to California may be necessary is embarrassing," Joy said.

The importance of Fort Ross to Sonoma County's billion-dollar tourist industry cannot be overlooked. A study by the Fort Ross association showed that each visitor to the fort leaves $67 in tourist income with county businesses.

I'VE ALWAYS BEEN fascinated by the global - or at least, western hemispheric - view of Fort Ross. It played an important role in the "China Trade," the circle of North Pacific commerce around the turn of the 19th century that sent ships from Britain, France, Russia and the United States on trade routes that included China, Japan, the Hawaiian islands, Alaska and Russia and, by way of Fort Ross, the reluctant Spanish, who claimed all of California.

All were hunting precious sea otter furs. (The Spanish considered all foreign ships pirates, having declared California off limits to foreign trade, but their defenses were weak, and many of the fur traders were smugglers as well.)

When the first Russian emissary, Nikolai Resanov, sailed into San Francisco Bay in 1806, the Presidio there was the northernmost outpost of Spanish California.

Resanov was a favorite of Empress Catherine the Great who saw him as a kind of missionary to bring the "Russian Way" to the savages of North America.

At the time, Russia had a toehold, little more, on the continent with a tenuous settlement on Kodiak Island (Sitka), a trading post of the Russian American Fur Trading Company. The post was important to a trade in which otter pelts were highly valued by the Chinese, but it was a long, long way from Russia and in dire straits in 1806. Supply ships either were not dispatched or sank. There was no agriculture and people were dying of scurvy for want of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Ironically, it was an American, Joseph O'Cain, captain of the Enterprise, who kept Sitka alive, bringing supplies and striking a deal to take Aleuts to hunt otter in exchange for furs.

The year that Resanov came to California to look for agricultural land as well as an otter hunting port was something like a year of destiny in the North Pacific. The British fur trader Alexander MacKenzie had reached the Pacific Coast of Canada a dozen years earlier and Americans Lewis & Clark were nearing the mouth of the Columbia River. Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia, the first U.S. settlement on the West Coast, would not be established by John Jacob Astor's fur trading company until 1811.

Unaware that a subtle shift in the power of nations along the Pacific Coast was under way, Resanov came to sweet-talk the Spanish into selling land on San Francisco Bay to the Russians. Needless to say, the effort failed, but the scant military might at the Presidio - legend has it that the Spanish fort had three cannon and two wouldn't fire, and that in order to fire a diplomatic salute to the Russian ship, the commandant had to borrow powder from his visitors - was a clue that the area north of the bay was indefensible,

So, despite the Spanish refusal to deal with Resanov, the direct result of his visit to San Francisco was the establishment of Fort Ross.

In 1809, another Russian ship, captained by a peg-legged adventurer named Ivan Kuskov, dropped anchor in Bodega Bay, which he named Rumiatsev. He built a shanty town and spent a year exploring for a permanent site. Kuskov's arrival signaled the end of the North Coast's "ancient history" and the beginning of the European incursion

Kuskov's scouting parties chose a site on a rocky promontory seven miles north of the river the Russians named Slavianka, meaning "little Slavic maiden." The site was defensible from three sides, the idea being that the farming would take place at three inland sites, which were eventually established on the river (using American geography) at the mouth of Willow Creek, at Bodega and in Green Valley.

In 1812, when the building project began, there were 25 Russians, about 100 Aleut otter hunters and several "kanakas" - Hawaiian men - at the outpost. By its peak, with the inland farms operative, which was about 1822, Joy estimates that there were 246 people living in and near Fort Ross - more, she points out, than San Francisco at that time.

The Russians stayed 29 years, during which the Spanish (and later, after a war of independence, Mexicans) scrambled to explore and settle their Frontera del Norte to curb Russian expansion.

In 1841, Russia made another overture - to the Mexican government - to purchase land and was soundly denied. They sold their fort to John Sutter - a Swiss immigrant who had empire-building plans in the Sacramento Valley, and went home. Sutter never paid for his purchase. But that's another story.

THE STORY NOW is how to keep Fort Ross Historic State Park open. This has been only a partial list of good reasons. There's another that comes with a heavy dose of irony.

There is a public meeting next Saturday in San Francisco to make plans for the Fort Ross Bicentennial Celebration.

The fort will be 200 years old in 2012 - the first site to celebrate a bicentennial in this area, Joy is quick to add - and organizations involved are getting ready for the big event.

When I mentioned this to another state parks employee last week, she gave a hollow laugh and said, "Well, they can still celebrate, I guess."

But if the state carries out its plans to close 100 parks and Fort Ross stays on the hit list, we can celebrate, all right. But we might not be able to go in.


The Cultural Landscape of Fort Vancouver National Historic Site: Hudson's Bay Company, 1824-1846

This sketch, drawn by A.B. Roberts in the 1850s, shows the Fort Vancouver Village with the fort in the background.

Administrative and Political Context

Chartered by the British crown since 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) dominated the fur trade in Canada, and later the Western territories, for two hundred years. Based out of the Hudson Bay region, the English fur trade monopoly encompassed 1.5 million square miles of territory between Russian Alaska and Mexican California. To keep up with a growing fur market and the shrinking supply of beaver pelts, HBC extended their range to interior western lands. In 1821, HBC acquired four trading posts in the Columbia Basin region from their rival company North West Company when the two businesses merged: Fort George at the Columbia River mouth, Fort Nez Percé, Spokane House, and Kootenai House. As these depots were unprofitable, HBC directed George Simpson to survey the region and recommend a course of action. Simpson did so, and in late 1824 he selected Jolie Prairie at the current Vancouver National Historic Reserve area as the site for the new Fort Vancouver.

Simpson's choice of a site on the north side as opposed to the south side of the Columbia River was likely a political strategy to keep the territory north of the Columbia River under British rule. Although the British-American War of 1812 ended in 1814 with the Treaty of Ghent, the treaty did not resolve the disputed claims of Great Britain and the United States to the entire territory west of the Rocky Mountains. The principal disagreement centered on the location of the boundary between Canada and the United States. Great Britain proposed the boundary follow the 49th parallel from the Rockies westward until it intersected the Columbia River, then follow the river southwest to the Pacific Ocean. The United States wanted the boundary to continue along the 49th parallel until it met the ocean - the current boundary between Canada and the United States. The two countries suspended negotiations in summer 1824, leaving final settlement of the disputed land between the 49th parallel and the Columbia River unresolved. The Hudson's Bay Company's establishment of Fort Vancouver later that same year reinforced Great Britain's claim to the undecided territory.

Within a decade, Fort Vancouver became the HBC Columbia Department's main supply post and administrative headquarters and the center of all HBC activities west of the Rockies, including international trade. Simpson decided to develop a sizeable agricultural operation to both supply the fort's needs as well as to augment the company's profitable export business. He appointed John McLoughlin as Chief Factor to oversee the fort's operations, and for twenty years McLoughlin managed a vast trade enterprise that extended from Alaska and the Rockies to California and Hawaii. Fort Vancouver's economic, political, and social influence peaked in the years between 1829 and 1846 as the fort became the manufacturing and agricultural hub of the Pacific Northwest. Agricultural activity intensified while the fur trade declined, and early industrial operations developed at the HBC fort, including salmon fisheries, large-scale timber milling, and grain milling. During this period, Fort Vancouver welcomed numerous travelers, explorers, missionaries, and scientists, including renowned Scottish botanist David Douglas and botanist Dr. Thomas Nuttall.

Fort Vancouver was instrumental in American westward expansion by providing pioneers the necessary provisions to establish farms across the Pacific Northwest from Puget Sound to the Willamette Valley. Starting in 1842, pioneer emigrants flooded into the area on the Oregon Trail. This mass wave of American settlement dampened British hopes of establishing control over the lower Columbia Basin. Finally the 1846 Oregon Treaty settled the boundary dispute in the United States' favor and signaled the end of the HBC period.

Site Description

The place we have selected is beautiful as may be inferred from its Name and the Country so open that from the Establishment there is good traveling on Horseback to any part of the interior a Farm to any extent may be made there, the pasture is good and innumerable herds of Swine can fatten so as to be fit for the Knife merely on nutricious [sic] Roots that are found here in any quantity and the Climate so fine that Indian Corn and other Grain cannot fail of thriving. The distance from the Harbour is the only inconvenience but that is of little importance being now a secondary establishment. at the Jolie Prairie or Belle vue Point where the New Fort is situated it may be from time to time enlarged without the trouble of felling a tree.

Simpson's description supports the assertion that the site had been modified by Native American land practices in a manner subsequently conducive to Euro-American settlement. His references to "good pasture" and "nutritious roots" (probably camas) suitable for pigs, combined with Alexander Henry's account of fire and subsequent grass growth on the site a decade earlier, are consistent with ethnohistorical and ethnobotanical accounts of prescribed burning. The site consisted of floodplain terraces stepping back from the Columbia River. According to Alexander Henry's 1814 observations and Simpson's 1824 reconnaissance, the land adjacent to the river was low and often under water (three miles long by three-quarter mile wide) the next terrace was high prairie ground rising up about thirty feet (two miles long by two miles wide) and dense coniferous forest rose sixty feet above it. Simpson also noted two lakes located in the center of the plain and occasionally inundated by spring floods.

Archaeological study has not yet uncovered the exact location of this first fort, however early maps show that it was in the vicinity of E Grand and E 6th Street. The fort was originally built on the upper plain of a bluff overlooking the lower plain this location was chosen due to its protected position and the company's concern over potential hostile relations with native peoples. Simpson related that "The Establishment is beautifully situated on the top of a bank about 1-1/4 Miles from the Water side commanding an extensive view of the River the surrounding Country and the fine plain below which is watered by two very pretty small Lakes and studded as if artificially by clumps of Fine Timber." The original site was abandoned when concerns about possible conflict proved unfounded, and the one-mile distance for obtaining water and shipping goods became too inconvenient. In the winter 1828-29, HBC officials moved the fort stockade within 400 yards of the river on the lower plain one-mile west of the fort's original location.

Fort Vancouver developed to its greatest extent by the 1840s. Hudson's Bay Company farmland comprised three large meadows, named Fort Plain, Lower Plain, and Mill Plain, nestled in a forest along the Columbia River. Fort Plain (alaëi'k-aë or turtle place) and Mill Plain (tij - no translation) were located on original prairies most likely maintained by lower Columbia tribes prior to HBC establishment. Additionally, there were five plains north and east of the three primary fort plains, typically called the "back plains," which intermittently supported crops. Dense coniferous forests defined the boundaries of the Fort Plain, and on the plain's northwest edge, a band of forest extended nearly to the river's edge.

Map showing the site as it appeared in the Hudson's Bay Company period, 1824 to 1846.

Landscape Characteristics

Natural Systems and Vegetation

The abundant availability of natural resources provided an optimal site for successful fur-trading and agricultural enterprise. The site's strategic location on the Columbia River and its surrounding natural resources were prime factors that attracted the Hudson's Bay Company. Key natural resources included the Columbia River and major streams for transportation a mild, maritime climate and good soils for farming large grasslands with livestock potential plenty of timber for building and open space in the midst of impenetrable forests to accommodate fort development.

Several people visited and documented the vegetation of Fort Vancouver in its early years. Early explorers observed the site's unique prairie-forest composition before and after the fort's construction. Pioneer settlers approvingly appraised prairies as useful places for livestock grazing and agriculture operations, while forests provided the necessary building materials.

George Simpson described the natural vegetation in the region west of the Cascade Range after his winter 1824-25 trip up the Columbia River to Jolie Prairie: "The banks of the Columbia on both sides from Capes Disappointment and Adams to the Cascade portage a distance of from 150 to 180 Miles are covered with a great variety of fine large timber, consisting of Pine of different kinds, of Cedar, Hemlock, Oak, Ask, Alder Maple and Poplar with many other kinds unknown to me."

After his 1825 visit, John Scouler wrote:

It is situated in the middle of a beautiful prairie, containing about 300 acres of excellent land, on which potatoes and other vegetables are cultivated while a large plain between the fort and river affords abundance of pasture to 120 horses, besides other cattle. The forests around the fort consists chiefly of Pinue balsamea & P. canandensis (trees since identified as Psuedotsuga douglasii dan Picea sitchensis). Within a short distance of the fort I found several interesting plants, as Phalagium escluentum, Berberis nervosa, B. Aquifolium, Calypso borealis & Corallorhiza innata. The root of the Phalangium esculentem (bulb since identified as Camassia quamash or camas) is much used by the natives as a substitute for bread. They grow abundantly in the moist prairies, the flower is usually blue, but sometimes white flowers are found.

Extensive natural meadows and plains of deep fertile alluvial deposit are covered with a rich sward of grass and a profusion of flowering plants. my labour in the neighborhood of this place was well rewarded by Ribes sanguineum (currant), Berberis aquifolium (tall Oregon grape), Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple), Scilla esculenta (Camassia quamash, camas), Pyrola aphylla (leafless pyrola), Caprifolium cilosium (Lonicera cilosium, honeysuckle), and a multitude of other plants.

Spatial Organization

Land Use

Fort Vancouver was a full-scale manufacturing, agricultural, and trading center of the Pacific Northwest by 1846, and Simpson's vision of the HBC post as a regional and global trading center was realized. The Fort Plain lands functioned according to uses driven by this prominent industry the HBC environs were utilized for extensive agriculture, for industries related to the export trade business, and to meet the subsistence needs of the many residents. Residential areas, farm clusters, industrial areas, fields, pastures, and mills all developed to support this first large-scale Pacific Northwest trade post. As development proceeded, forests and prairies were cleared to make way for fields and farms.

The Columbia River was the primary transportation corridor that supported Fort Vancouver's trading and agricultural industries. Travel still occurred mainly by water during this period, and people and goods arrived and departed Fort Vancouver via boat. The waterfront was thus an active place, and an important nexus between the fort site and the river.

Circulation

Development of roads, paths, and water routes was largely driven by the fort's function as a fur-trading and agricultural post. Principal access to and from the site during this period was from the Columbia River. The Columbia River was the focal point of activity, and the primary transportation route for far-ranging trade and supply ships, as well as local travel. Hudson's Bay Company ships, London-based supply ships, and civilian and military trading ships traveled upriver from the Pacific Ocean. Verious river craft transported passengers and goods down river from The Dalles, while barges and boats brought passengers and goods from the Willamette River to the Columbia to the Company's wharf.

An 1825 map shows that the first road was constructed on a north-south axis from the Columbia River to the first fort site. This road allowed goods unloaded from ships at the waterfront to be transported up the bluff to the stockade's storehouses. Carting goods the nearly one-mile distance with wagons was an arduous process. The exact anchorage and staging area for the first fort is unknown, although a wharf was constructed southeast of the 1828-29 fort site within this time period.

Early maps illustrate conflicting information with respect to the road system development. An 1846 map by Richard Covington is fairly consistent with an 1844 map by Henry Peers, which shows the east-west Upper Mill Plain Road and the Lower Mill Plain Road, and a southeasterly road connecting the two mill plain roads. But these two maps differ from the 1845–46 Vavasour map in depicting the location of the southeasterly road in relation to the lower lakes. None of the 1840s maps indicate the connection between the Lower Mill Plain Road and the river.

This drawing is based on an 1846 map drawn by Richard Covington.

Buildings, Clusters, and Small-scale Features

Fort Vancouver was laid out in a series of clustered structures and features organized around the floodplain hydrology, topography, and vegetation patterns. Major clusters were arranged along the Columbia River and on naturally occurring open meadows these principal clusters consisted of Fort Plain, Lower Plain, Mill Plain, the sawmill, the gristmill, as well as the Back Plains prairie series located north and east of the fort. Agriculture fields were initially tilled into existing open prairies on alluvial soils, and barns and utility sheds were adjacent to fields. Mills operated on streams emptying into the Columbia River, while sheds and workers’ housing were located nearby. The upland forests provided crucial building materials.

The Fort Plain contained several clusters: the stockade the employee village surrounding gardens, fields, and orchards and the river front complex. The 1829 fort stockade was the center of the outfit with roads radiating out from the fort. The stockade cluster contained stores, warehouses, offices, and officer residences. Other structures and agricultural operations built up around the HBC fort: schools, stables, a cemetery, a church, garden, orchard, and cultivated fields.

A large, multi-cultural village (sometimes referred to as Kanaka Village or the Village) developed west of the fort and was comprised of several employee residences, some with enclosed gardens. Fort Vancouver attracted numerous people from distant places. American Indians from the east coast and Canada, native Hawaiians, French Canadians, English, Scots, and Metís came to Fort Vancouver, and created a very diverse community at Fort Vancouver’s employee village. South of the village was a cluster of structures arranged around a pond connected to the Columbia River these were predominantly utilitarian structures such as stables, cooper’s shop, saw, and tanning pits. The southern edge of this cluster included the salmon house (store) leading to a wharf, a warehouse, a hospital, and a salt house.


Was an adobe fort or a palisade fort more defensible? - Sejarah

On May 10, 1775, a motley force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the neglected Fort Ticonderoga and its small garrison. Its cannon were dragged to Dorchester Heights outside of Boston, where they convinced the British to withdraw. An American force invaded Canada but was sent reeling after a failed assault of Quebec on the last day of the year. In 1776 a planned British invasion along Lake Champlain required the construction of a fleet. By the time it defeated an American fleet at Valcour Island, it was too late in the season to tackle the American army at Ticonderoga. But for 1777, another British invasion was planned, this time with 8,000 men under Sir John Burgoyne. Ticonderoga and Mount Independence across the lake were defended by 2,500 to 3,000 men under Gen Arthur St. Clair. St. Clair had only taken command on June 13th. The previous commander, Col Anthony Wayne, believed that the fort was entrely defensible and said as much to Wahington after he was transfered to his command. Commander of the Northern Army, Gen. Schyuler, felt very differently he felt he needed 10,000 men to properly man the defenses. St Clair said he had only 1,576 healthy soldiers the day that he took command, which rose by 500 at the end of the month. Exact numbers are unclear, but St Clair later stated that if his men manned all the defenses, they would be stretched so thin that they would be barely within shouting distance of each other. Further, British light troops and Indian allies so controlled the wilderness around the fort that the Americans could scarely send out patrols. So, when Burgoyne landed troops three miles to the north of either side of the lake, they were uncontested and undetected but for the sound of their fifes and drums.

On July 2nd, British forces reached Les Chutes, the water and portage connection with Lake George, cutting off potential American escape via Lake George.

The old French earthworks that the British had assaulted at such cost in the French and Indian War were put back into service. Quickly, however, they fell to the British - on July 2nd.


The reconstructed earthworks on the right side of the panorama works is one of the works that protected the lower, flatter ground north of the main fort. Another is near the parking area at the treeline on the left side of the panorama. The main road leads to the fort itself, which we will see next.


If the British managed to get through the earthworks, they would face the stone fort, a formidable fortification for such a sparsely populated area. The standard four sided square trace with four bastions was augmented by two outworks called demi-lunes, giving the defenses more depth, and a covered way for the infantry to defend was fronted by a wooden palisade.

Designed and built originally by the French, the fort was built at a narrow point along Lake Champlain where water from Lake George entered after passing waterfalls - so the most impressive defenses faced east and south. Across the entering waters from Lake George was Sugar Loaf Hill, now caleed Mount Defiance this was the weak point in the defenses. Montcalm himself had noted the fort's vulnerability to cannon from the hill.

Huts had been built nearby the stone fort to house the troops.


At the tip of the peninsula, connecting Ticonderoga with Mount Independence across the lake, there was an innovative floating bridge anchored by rock filled cassions. These cassions may have originally built on ice and allowed to sink with warmer weather. Just to the north a log and chain boom kept British boats at bay.


On July 4, 1777, a group of forty British troops and several Indian allies climbed Sugar Loaf Hill. The next day they were joined by Lt William Twiss, the chief engineer of Burgoyne's army acting now as an aide to General Phillips, Maj Griffith Williams commanding Burgoyne's artillery, and Brigadier Simon Fraser. A mile long road would have to cut, but 12 pounders could be brought to the hill where they would dominate Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. Phillips, it is said, exclaimed, "Where a goat can go, a man can go, and where a man can go, he can drag a gun."

An American staff officer had suggested to Gen Gates that a fort be built on Sugar Loaf Hill, but the advice was rejected. This staff officer, John Trumbull, along with Anthony Wayne and Benedict Arnold, studied the hill and concluded that cannon could be hauled to the top and fired into the fort. Building a fort there wasn't a simple matter, however, as there wasn't enough money or men to build and man a fort, and there was no good water supply.

The British party atop Sugar Loaf Hill had been spotted, and Indians had made campfires, demonstrating a larger presence. St Clair called a council of war. He had only 2.089 Continentals and 900 militia, and the British were preparing to open a devastating artillery crossfire on Ticonderoga, including from Sugar Loaf Hill. Meanwhile, the British/Hessian column on the east side of the lake was having difficulty crossing East Creek. The decision was unanimous - the army must evacuate stores by boat and retreat across the bridge toward the Hampshire Grants while there was still time. On July 6th, Burgoyne met with American deserters who said that the American army had evacuated. They had indeed evacuated, and in their haste and lack of planning, they left behind a wealth of stores and weapons. There is a story that two American soldiers were left at the Mount Independence side of the bridge to fire a cannon at the advancing British, but were found drunk this story has only one source, and an unreliable one at that. The bridge was cut by the retreating Americans, so when the British naval vessels breached the boom, they were free to continue south.

Skenesborough - now Whitehall

The naval part of the evacuation ended here at the south end of Lake Champlain on the afternoon of July 6th. Without even unloading the them, Col. Pierce Long burned and blew up the boats.

Today, the Champlain Canal connects Lake Champlain and the Hudson River.

What was the cause of the disaster at Ticonderoga? The American weakness in light troops meant that the defenders were kept in the dark about British movements. If Ticonderoga had been defended by a smaller force, and designed to be defended by a smaller force, a field army might have been able to contest the British advance and harass a British siege. But would a field army have been large enough to defeat Burgoyne? As it was, the American defenses required all of the troops available and more - not enough to occupy Mount Defiance and not even enough to defend existing fortifications. The effort was doomed to begin with, and the Americans were saved only by the failure of the British/Hessian column on the eastern side of the lake.

Informed of the fall of Ticonderoga, an elated King George exclaimed to his wife, "I have beat them!" On the American side, the news was a shock, and a rumor even circulated that Schyuler and St Clair had commited treason, paid for by silver bullets fired into the fort. St Clair, however, was found not guilty of charges against him in a court martial. The campaign was far from over, and the American army retreating east was still in danger. As the British pursued, a rear guard action at Hubbardton could decide the fate of the American Northern Army.


How fast could a group of slaves in rebellion build a palisade fort with a gate and flanking towers/ whats in it? [closed]

Want to improve this question? Update the question so it focuses on one problem only by editing this post.

I have a high fantasy story about a slave rebellion in an adjacent kingdom being backed by an empire who wishes to seize control over the kingdom. The deal is they'll help win the war and end the slave trade in the territory if they are given control over the kingdom.

I'm drawing on elements of the Roman slave rebellions in Sicily for some structure to the rebellion overall, but I am unsure about details of certain military actions. I have my slaves starting on a forest island off of the kingdom they were enslaved in. I figured if they were going to stay in this location and start formulating their rebellion they would need some sort of defensible position. I have them on a hilltop in a clearing they made after clearing the trees for lumber. I wanted to have palisade walls, a fortified gate and flanking towers, and possibly a secondary gate, because repetition was a big element of medieval defenses.

My question is first of all: Is this realistic, is this overkill/underkill? Then how long would this take to construct with approximately 100 people, half being in fine working condition? Then what would be inside of the palisade walls as far as living? Not everyone is a fighter, there are women and children and some elderly, and the weather and conditions are harsh in the area. Would it be entirely tent living and lean-tos worst case scenario, would their be some structures besides walls and towers?

My goal is to try and depict warfare accurately to the period so any advice here is appreciated! Just found this site, it's pretty neat and I figured I'd toss a question your way that I've been mulling on a bit.


Presidio Wall

This marker locates the northwest corner of the adobe wall which surrounded the Royal Spanish Presidio San Agust n del Tucson. In 1776 the new outpost was garrisoned by seventy Spanish cavalry troopers and Indian scouts, transferred from Tubac under the command of Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza. The first fort, a crude wooden palisade, was replaced by adobe walls begun about 1778 and completed in 1783. For 80 years Presidial soldiers provided protection for San Xavier mission and for settlers who farmed the Santa Cruz valley.

Espa ol
Muralla Presidial
Esta l mina se ala la esquina del noroeste de la muralla de adobe rodeando el presidio espa ol de San Agust n del Tucs n. En 1776 el nuevo fuerte estaba guarnecido por unos setenta soldados de caballer a e indios exploradores, trasladados de Tubac bajo la comandancia de Juan Bautista de Anza. La primera palizada de le os fue reemplazada por una muralla de adobe, empezada en 1778 y terminada en 1783. Por ochenta a os los soldados del presidio proteg an la misi n de San Xavier y los agricultores del valle de la Santa Cruz.

Erected by Tucson-Pima County Historical Commission and Arizona Historical Society.

Topik dan seri. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Forts and Castles

&bull Hispanic Americans &bull Notable Places &bull Settlements & Settlers. In addition, it is included in the Arizona, The Presidio Trail series list. A significant historical year for this entry is 1776.

Lokasi. 32° 13.451′ N, 110° 58.545′ W. Marker is in Tucson, Arizona, in Pima County. Marker is at the intersection of North Main Avenue and West Washington Street, on the right when traveling north on North Main Avenue. Sentuh untuk peta. Marker is in this post office area: Tucson AZ 85701, United States of America. Sentuh untuk petunjuk arah.

penanda terdekat lainnya. Setidaknya 8 penanda lain berada dalam jarak berjalan kaki dari penanda ini. N. W. Corner Adobe Wall of Spanish Presidio of Tucson (here, next to this marker) Mansions of Main Avenue (a few steps from this marker) Presidio San Agust n del Tucson (a few steps from this marker) Leonardo Romero House (within shouting distance of this marker) Hiram S. Stevens House (within shouting distance of this marker) Meyer Street (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) La Casa Cordova (about 400 feet away) Main Gate (about 400 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Tucson.

Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker. To better understand the relationship, study each marker in the

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